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J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis., Volume 7, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 14 articles

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13 pages, 2300 KiB  
Review
Left Ventricular Blood Flow Kinetic Energy Assessment by 4D Flow Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance: A Systematic Review of the Clinical Relevance
by Harjinder Kaur, Hosamadin Assadi, Samer Alabed, Donnie Cameron, Vassilios S. Vassiliou, Jos J. M. Westenberg, Rob van der Geest, Liang Zhong, Amardeep Dastidar, Andrew J. Swift and Pankaj Garg
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2020, 7(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd7030037 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3588
Abstract
Background: There is an emerging body of evidence that supports the potential clinical value of left ventricular (LV) intracavity blood flow kinetic energy (KE) assessment using four-dimensional flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (4D flow CMR). The aim of this systematic review is to [...] Read more.
Background: There is an emerging body of evidence that supports the potential clinical value of left ventricular (LV) intracavity blood flow kinetic energy (KE) assessment using four-dimensional flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (4D flow CMR). The aim of this systematic review is to summarize studies evaluating LV intracavity blood flow KE quantification methods and its potential clinical significance. Methods: A systematic review search was carried out on Medline, Pubmed, EMBASE and CINAHL. Results: Of the 677 articles screened, 16 studies met eligibility. These included six (37%) studies on LV diastolic function, another six (37%) studies on heart failure or cardiomyopathies, three (19%) studies on ischemic heart disease or myocardial infarction and finally, one (6%) study on valvular heart disease, namely, mitral regurgitation. One of the main strengths identified by these studies is high reproducibility of LV blood flow KE hemodynamic assessment (mean coefficient of variability = 6 ±  2%) for the evaluation of LV diastolic function. Conclusions: The evidence gathered in this systematic review suggests that LV blood flow KE has great promise for LV hemodynamic assessment. Studies showed increased diagnostic confidence at no cost of additional time. Results were highly reproducible with low intraobserver variability. Full article
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9 pages, 2075 KiB  
Review
Transcatheter Versus Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients with Cardiac Surgery: Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of the Literature
by Azka Latif, Noman Lateef, Muhammad Junaid Ahsan, Vikas Kapoor, Rana Mohammad Usman, Stephen Cooper, Venkata Andukuri, Mohsin Mirza, Muhammad Zubair Ashfaq and Rami Khouzam
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2020, 7(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd7030036 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2750
Abstract
The number of patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and a history of prior cardiac surgery has increased. Prior cardiac surgery increases the risk of adverse outcomes in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement. To evaluate the impact of prior cardiac surgery on clinical [...] Read more.
The number of patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and a history of prior cardiac surgery has increased. Prior cardiac surgery increases the risk of adverse outcomes in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement. To evaluate the impact of prior cardiac surgery on clinical endpoints in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) versus surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), we performed a literature search using PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases. The clinical endpoints included in our study were 30-day mortality, 1–2-year mortality, acute kidney injury (AKI), bleeding, stroke, procedural time, and duration of hospital stay. Seven studies, which included a total of 8221 patients, were selected. Our study found that TAVR was associated with a lower incidence of stroke and bleeding complications. There was no significant difference in terms of AKI, 30-day all-cause mortality, and 1–2-year all-cause mortality between the two groups. The average procedure time and duration of hospital stay were 170 min less (p ≤ 0.01) and 3.6 days shorter (p < 0.01) in patients with TAVR, respectively. In patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft and severe AS, both TAVR and SAVR are reasonable options. However, TAVR may be associated with a lower incidence of complications like stroke and perioperative bleeding, in addition to a shorter length of stay. Full article
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11 pages, 5106 KiB  
Article
Identification and Morphogenesis of Vestibular Atrial Septal Defects
by Rohit S. Loomba, Justin T. Tretter, Timothy J. Mohun, Robert H. Anderson, Scott Kramer and Diane E. Spicer
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2020, 7(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd7030035 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3618
Abstract
Background: The vestibular atrial septal defect is an interatrial communication located in the antero-inferior portion of the atrial septum. Reflecting either inadequate muscularization of the vestibular spine and mesenchymal cap during development, or excessive apoptosis within the developing antero-inferior septal component, the [...] Read more.
Background: The vestibular atrial septal defect is an interatrial communication located in the antero-inferior portion of the atrial septum. Reflecting either inadequate muscularization of the vestibular spine and mesenchymal cap during development, or excessive apoptosis within the developing antero-inferior septal component, the vestibular defect represents an infrequently recognized true deficiency of the atrial septum. We reviewed necropsy specimens from three separate archives to establish the frequency of such vestibular defects and their associated cardiac findings, providing additional analysis from developing mouse hearts to illustrate their potential morphogenesis. Materials and methods: We analyzed the hearts in the Farouk S. Idriss Cardiac Registry at Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital in Chicago, IL, the Van Mierop Archive at the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida, and the archive at Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute in St. Petersburg, Florida, identifying all those exhibiting a vestibular atrial septal defect, along with the associated intracardiac malformations. We then assessed potential mechanisms for the existence of such defects, based on the assessment of 450 datasets of developing mouse hearts prepared using the technique of episcopic microscopy. Results: We analyzed a total of 2100 specimens. Of these, 68 (3%) were found to have a vestibular atrial septal defect. Comparable defects were identified in 10 developing mouse embryos sacrificed at embryonic data 15.5, by which stage the antero-inferior component of the atrial septum is usually normally formed. Conclusion: The vestibular defect is a true septal defect located in the muscular antero-inferior rim of the oval fossa. Our retrospective review of autopsied hearts suggests that the defect may be more common than previously thought. Increased awareness of the location of the defect should optimize its future clinical identification. We suggest that the defect exists because of failure, during embryonic development, of union of the components that bind the leading edge of the primary atrial septum to the atrioventricular junctions, either because of inadequate muscularisation or excessive apoptosis. Full article
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6 pages, 2768 KiB  
Case Report
Pseudoaneurysm Development after Free Wall Rupture Post Myocardial Infarction
by Steven Douedi, Nasam Alfraji, Vandan D. Upadhyaya, Mihir Odak, Matthew Meleka and Muhammad R. Raza
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2020, 7(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd7030034 - 7 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2364
Abstract
Background: According to the World Health Organization, cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death globally, claiming millions of lives each year with an increasing prevalence. Myocardial infarction (MI) makes up a large sum of these deaths each year. While MI in [...] Read more.
Background: According to the World Health Organization, cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death globally, claiming millions of lives each year with an increasing prevalence. Myocardial infarction (MI) makes up a large sum of these deaths each year. While MI in itself is lethal, there are several complications that can increase the morbidity and mortality of an MI, such as left ventricular wall rupture and aneurysms. Case Presentation: We present a case of an elderly male with an extensive cardiac history who presented with a non-ST segment myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) managed with percutaneous coronary intervention. Hours after, he became hemodynamically unable and was found to have a pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle. Despite aggressive efforts, his pseudoaneurysm ruptured and he ultimately succumbed to his condition. Conclusions: Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm is usually seen after myocardial infarctions with a rupture rate of up to 45% leading to a mortality rate of about 50%. While cardiac catheterization with left ventriculography is the gold standard for diagnosis, echocardiography can also be used as an alternative. Treatment is emergent cardiac surgery but still holds a high operative risk. Therefore, patients may be medically stabilized and managed prior to ultimate surgical intervention. Full article
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2 pages, 191 KiB  
Editorial
Is There a Link Between Nutrition, Genetics, and Cardiovascular Disease?
by Marwan El Ghoch and Said El Shamieh
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2020, 7(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd7030033 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2811
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of disorders that mainly include coronary, cerebrovascular and rheumatic heart diseases [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Genetics, and Cardiovascular Disease)
16 pages, 3851 KiB  
Article
Smooth Muscle α-Actin Expression in Mitral Valve Interstitial Cells is Important for Mediating Extracellular Matrix Remodeling
by Bailey K. Dye, Catalina Butler and Joy Lincoln
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2020, 7(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd7030032 - 19 Aug 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3382
Abstract
Background: Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) affects 3–6% of the total population including those with connective tissue disorders. Treatment is limited, and patients commonly require surgery which can be impermanent and insuperable. Abnormal prolapse of mitral valve leaflets into the left atria is caused [...] Read more.
Background: Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) affects 3–6% of the total population including those with connective tissue disorders. Treatment is limited, and patients commonly require surgery which can be impermanent and insuperable. Abnormal prolapse of mitral valve leaflets into the left atria is caused by disturbances to the composition and organization of the extracellular matrix (ECM), that weaken biomechanics. This process, known as myxomatous degeneration is characterized by an abnormal accumulation of proteoglycans, in addition to collagen fiber disruption and elastic fiber fragmentation. The underlying mechanisms that promote myxomatous degeneration to the point of biomechanical failure are unknown, but previous histological studies of end-stage diseased tissue have reported abnormal α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) in a subset of heart valve interstitial cells (VICs); however, the contribution of these abnormal cells to MVP pathogenesis has not been extensively examined. Methods: In vivo and in vitro approaches were used. Mice harboring a Fbn1C1039G mutation mimic human Marfan Syndrome and develop MVP. Using these mice, temporal and spatial changes in SMA expression relative to myxomatous degeneration were examined using histological techniques. In parallel in vitro experiments, SMA expression was downregulated in primary porcine mitral VICs directly using siRNA, and indirectly using the actin depolymerizing agent Latrunculin A. In addition, the regulation of SMA in VICs by mechanical stiffness was explored relative to ECM remodeling. Results: We show, in mitral valves from Fbn1C1039G/+ mice, that abnormal increases in SMA expression in VICs are evident during early postnatal stages of disease, prior to significant myxomatous degeneration as indicated at later stages by increased proteoglycans and collagen type I (Col1a1). Furthermore, abnormal SMA expression continues to increase during the course of pathogenesis and is localized to the mid belly region of the mitral valve leaflets from 10 weeks. Using an in vitro approach, we demonstrate that reduced SMA function by direct siRNA or indirect Latrunculin A treatment attenuates proteoglycan and Col1a1 expression in porcine mitral VICs. While upstream, we provide insights to show that SMA is regulated by mechanical tension in VICs to promote changes in ECM homeostasis. Conclusions: Together, our data show that in VICs, SMA, an actin binding protein, is important for mediating ECM remodeling associated with phenotypes observed in myxomatous degeneration, and its expression is regulated by mechanical tension. These novel insights could inform the development of future non-surgical therapeutics to halt the progression of mitral valve degeneration thereby avoiding end-stage prolapse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitral Valve Development and Disease)
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17 pages, 9803 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Expression Profiles of β-Catenin during Murine Cardiac Valve Development
by Lilong Guo, Janiece Glover, Alyssa Risner, Christina Wang, Diana Fulmer, Kelsey Moore, Cortney Gensemer, Mary Kate Rumph, Reece Moore, Tyler Beck and Russell A. Norris
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2020, 7(3), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd7030031 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3618
Abstract
β-catenin has been widely studied in many animal and organ systems across evolution, and gain or loss of function has been linked to a number of human diseases. Yet fundamental knowledge regarding its protein expression and localization remains poorly described. Thus, we sought [...] Read more.
β-catenin has been widely studied in many animal and organ systems across evolution, and gain or loss of function has been linked to a number of human diseases. Yet fundamental knowledge regarding its protein expression and localization remains poorly described. Thus, we sought to define whether there was a temporal and cell-specific regulation of β-catenin activities that correlate with distinct cardiac morphological events. Our findings indicate that activated nuclear β-catenin is primarily evident early in gestation. As development proceeds, nuclear β-catenin is down-regulated and becomes restricted to the membrane in a subset of cardiac progenitor cells. After birth, little β-catenin is detected in the heart. The co-expression of β-catenin with its main transcriptional co-factor, Lef1, revealed that Lef1 and β-catenin expression domains do not extensively overlap in the cardiac valves. These data indicate mutually exclusive roles for Lef1 and β-catenin in most cardiac cell types during development. Additionally, these data indicate diverse functions for β-catenin within the nucleus and membrane depending on cell type and gestational timing. Cardiovascular studies should take into careful consideration both nuclear and membrane β-catenin functions and their potential contributions to cardiac development and disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitral Valve Development and Disease)
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20 pages, 24653 KiB  
Review
Virtual Dissection: Emerging as the Gold Standard of Analyzing Living Heart Anatomy
by Justin T. Tretter, Saurabh Kumar Gupta, Yu Izawa, Tatsuya Nishii and Shumpei Mori
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2020, 7(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd7030030 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4898
Abstract
Traditionally, gross cardiac anatomy has been described mainly based on the findings in the dissection suite. Analyses of heart specimens have contributed immensely towards building a fundamental knowledge of cardiac anatomy. However, there are limitations in analyzing the autopsied heart removed from the [...] Read more.
Traditionally, gross cardiac anatomy has been described mainly based on the findings in the dissection suite. Analyses of heart specimens have contributed immensely towards building a fundamental knowledge of cardiac anatomy. However, there are limitations in analyzing the autopsied heart removed from the thorax. Three-dimensional imaging allows visualization of the blood-filled heart in vivo in attitudinally appropriate fashion. This is of paramount importance for not only demonstration of cardiac anatomy for educational purposes, but also for the detailed anatomical evaluation in patients with acquired and congenital heart disease. In this review, we discuss the advantages of three-dimensional imaging, specifically focusing on virtual dissection, a volume rendering-based reconstruction technique using computed tomographic data. We highlight examples of three-dimensional imaging in both education and guiding patient management. Full article
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20 pages, 720 KiB  
Review
The Importance of Telomere Shortening for Atherosclerosis and Mortality
by Wolfgang Herrmann and Markus Herrmann
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2020, 7(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd7030029 - 6 Aug 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4248
Abstract
Telomeres are the protective end caps of chromosomes and shorten with every cell division. Short telomeres are associated with older age and adverse lifestyle factors. Leucocyte telomere length (LTL) has been proposed as a biomarker of biological age. The shortening of LTL with [...] Read more.
Telomeres are the protective end caps of chromosomes and shorten with every cell division. Short telomeres are associated with older age and adverse lifestyle factors. Leucocyte telomere length (LTL) has been proposed as a biomarker of biological age. The shortening of LTL with age is the result of the end-replication problem, environmental, and lifestyle-related factors. Epidemiologic studies have shown that LTL predicts cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality, and death from vascular causes. Age appears to be an important co-variate that explains a substantial fraction of this effect. Although it has been proposed that short telomeres promote atherosclerosis and impair the repair of vascular lesions, existing results are inconsistent. Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation can both accelerate telomere shortening. Multiple factors, including homocysteine (HCY), vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 modulate oxidative stress and inflammation through direct and indirect mechanisms. This review provides a compact overview of telomere physiology and the utility of LTL measurements in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. In addition, it summarizes existing knowledge regarding the impact of oxidative stress, inflammation, HCY, and B-vitamins on telomere function. Full article
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12 pages, 704 KiB  
Article
Triglycerides to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio Predicts Chronic Renal Disease in Patients without Diabetes Mellitus (STELLA Study)
by Vaia D. Raikou, Despina Kyriaki and Sotiris Gavriil
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2020, 7(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd7030028 - 1 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2784
Abstract
Background: The triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio has been included in the potential indices for atherosclerosis in chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we addressed the role of the TG/HDL-C ratio on CKD prediction defined by both classified estimated glomerular [...] Read more.
Background: The triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio has been included in the potential indices for atherosclerosis in chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we addressed the role of the TG/HDL-C ratio on CKD prediction defined by both classified estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and classified urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) in non-diabetic participants. Methods: One hundred and eighty-three subjects with a mean age 67.3 ± 15.6 years old were included. Our participants were classified in both eGFR and UACR categories according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes 2012 criteria. Estimated pulse wave velocity (ePWV) was calculated using an equation from age and mean blood pressure. The TG/HDL-C ratio was calculated. X2 tests and adjusted models were applied using confounders. Results: The TG/HDL-C ratio was inversely associated with eGFR and positively with both UACR and ePWV. We divided our patients in two groups according to the found ROC curve of the TG/HDL-C ratio cut-off point, either with an eGFR of less or more than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. X2 tests showed significant association between the high TG/HDL-C ratio and classified eGFR, and classified UACR and hypertension (x2 = 24.5, p = 0.001, x2 = 12.5, p = 0.002 and x2 = 12.6, p = 0.001, respectively). The adjusted model showed the high TG/HDL-C ratio to be an independent predictor for both a low eGFR and UACR (OR = 1.5, 1.2–1.9 and OR = 1.22, 1.02–1.47, respectively) in combination with old age and hypertension. Conclusion: The TG/HDL-C ratio was revealed to be a potential predictor for both a low eGFR and micro/macroalbuminuria in non-diabetic patients. The arterial stiffening was included in the main underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Full article
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22 pages, 12647 KiB  
Article
Early Embryonic Expression of AP-2α Is Critical for Cardiovascular Development
by Amy-Leigh Johnson, Jürgen E. Schneider, Timothy J. Mohun, Trevor Williams, Shoumo Bhattacharya, Deborah J. Henderson, Helen M. Phillips and Simon D. Bamforth
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2020, 7(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd7030027 - 23 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3629
Abstract
Congenital cardiovascular malformation is a common birth defect incorporating abnormalities of the outflow tract and aortic arch arteries, and mice deficient in the transcription factor AP-2α (Tcfap2a) present with complex defects affecting these structures. AP-2α is expressed in the pharyngeal surface [...] Read more.
Congenital cardiovascular malformation is a common birth defect incorporating abnormalities of the outflow tract and aortic arch arteries, and mice deficient in the transcription factor AP-2α (Tcfap2a) present with complex defects affecting these structures. AP-2α is expressed in the pharyngeal surface ectoderm and neural crest at mid-embryogenesis in the mouse, but the precise tissue compartment in which AP-2α is required for cardiovascular development has not been identified. In this study we describe the fully penetrant AP-2α deficient cardiovascular phenotype on a C57Bl/6J genetic background and show that this is associated with increased apoptosis in the pharyngeal ectoderm. Neural crest cell migration into the pharyngeal arches was not affected. Cre-expressing transgenic mice were used in conjunction with an AP-2α conditional allele to examine the effect of deleting AP-2α from the pharyngeal surface ectoderm and the neural crest, either individually or in combination, as well as the second heart field. This, surprisingly, was unable to fully recapitulate the global AP-2α deficient cardiovascular phenotype. The outflow tract and arch artery phenotype was, however, recapitulated through early embryonic Cre-mediated recombination. These findings indicate that AP-2α has a complex influence on cardiovascular development either being required very early in embryogenesis and/or having a redundant function in many tissue layers. Full article
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19 pages, 337 KiB  
Review
Phthalates Implications in the Cardiovascular System
by Melissa Mariana and Elisa Cairrao
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2020, 7(3), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd7030026 - 22 Jul 2020
Cited by 59 | Viewed by 4289
Abstract
Today’s sedentary lifestyle and eating habits have been implicated as some of the causes of the increased incidence of several diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases. However, environmental pollutants have also been identified as another possible cause for this increase in recent decades. [...] Read more.
Today’s sedentary lifestyle and eating habits have been implicated as some of the causes of the increased incidence of several diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases. However, environmental pollutants have also been identified as another possible cause for this increase in recent decades. The constant human exposure to plastics has been raising attention regarding human health, particularly when it comes to phthalates. These are plasticizers used in the manufacture of industrial and consumer products, such as PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) plastics and personal care products, with endocrine-disrupting properties, as they can bind molecular targets in the body and interfere with hormonal function. Since these compounds are not covalently bound to the plastic, they are easily released into the environment during their manufacture, use, or disposal, leading to increased human exposure and enhancing health risks. In fact, some studies have related phthalate exposure with cardiovascular health, having already shown a positive association with the development of hypertension and atherosclerosis in adults and some cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents. Therefore, the main purpose of this review is to present and relate the most recent studies concerning the implications of phthalates effects on the cardiovascular system. Full article
9 pages, 1209 KiB  
Article
Why Some Patients Undergoing Lipoprotein Apheresis Therapy Develop New Cardiovascular Events?
by Ulrich Julius, Solveig Kuss, Sergey Tselmin, Ulrike Schatz and Stefan R. Bornstein
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2020, 7(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd7030025 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2540
Abstract
Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) is an effective tool to reduce cardiovascular events (CVEs) in high-risk patients with elevations of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)). All patients included into this retrospective analysis had experienced CVEs before the start of the LA therapy. We [...] Read more.
Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) is an effective tool to reduce cardiovascular events (CVEs) in high-risk patients with elevations of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)). All patients included into this retrospective analysis had experienced CVEs before the start of the LA therapy. We compared personal and lab data in two groups: CVEx/0 (n 60) with no new events during LA therapy, CVEx/1+ (n 48) with at least one new event. Patients of Group CVEx/1+ were about 5 years older when they had started the extracorporeal therapy, and they experienced more CVEs prior to that timepoint. There was a positive correlation between the number of CVEs before and during LA therapy. No differences were seen with respect to lipid concentrations, even after a correction of LDL-C concentrations for the LDL-C transported with Lp(a) particles. LA sessions effectively reduced both LDL-C and Lp(a). Lp(a) levels measured before LA sessions were lower than those measured initially. It appeared difficult to reach the target values for LDL-C published in the ESC/EAS Guideline in 2019, although all patients were maximally treated including drugs when tolerated. In conclusion, it will be important to initiate an LA therapy earlier, at least after a second CVE and at a younger age. Full article
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7 pages, 231 KiB  
Brief Report
The Association of rs1898830 in Toll-Like Receptor 2 with Lipids and Blood Pressure
by Pia Chedid, Ali Salami and Said El Shamieh
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2020, 7(3), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd7030024 - 8 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2111
Abstract
Background and Objective: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important components of the innate immune system, involved in establishing immunity to infections. Apart from being implicated in immunity, numerous studies have reported that many TLRs, including TLR2, are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases [...] Read more.
Background and Objective: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important components of the innate immune system, involved in establishing immunity to infections. Apart from being implicated in immunity, numerous studies have reported that many TLRs, including TLR2, are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors. Since rs1898830 is associated with TLR2-mediated cellular activation, we aimed to study its association with CVD risk factors, such as lipid levels and hypertension. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 460 individuals free from chronic diseases. Clinical and biological data were collected and DNA was extracted and genotyped using Kompetitive allele specific PCR (KASP™). Multiple logistic regression models, adjusted for six covariates, were used. A power calculation analysis was also performed. Results: We found that rs1898830 in TLR2 was positively associated with hypertension (OR = 2.18, p = 0.03) and negatively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR = 0.66, p = 0.05). In contrast, no relation was found with total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusion: The present results provide additional evidence supporting the implication of TLR2 in CVD risk factors. Full article
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