African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most threatening diseases for the pig farming sector worldwide. As an effective vaccine is lacking, strict application of control measures is the only way to fight the disease in both industrial farms and backyard holdings. With generally low biosecurity standards, the latter are at particular risk for disease introduction and offer challenging conditions for disease control. In the following case report, we describe the overall course of an ASF outbreak in a Bulgarian backyard farm and the implemented control measures. Farm facilities and available data have been investigated to estimate the possible source, spread and time point of virus introduction. Contact with contaminated fomites entering the stable via human activities was regarded to be the most likely introduction route. The slow disease spread within the farm contributes to the hypothesis of a moderate contagiosity. As no further ASF outbreaks have been detected in domestic pig farms in the region, it could be demonstrated that successful disease control in small-scale farms can be reached. Thus, the report contributes to a better understanding of ASF in the backyard sector.
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