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Medicines, Volume 9, Issue 1 (January 2022) – 7 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In cardiac surgery, patients are at risk of phrenic nerve injury, which leads to diaphragm dysfunction and acute respiratory failure. Diaphragm dysfunction (DD) is relatively frequent in cardiac surgery and particularly affects patients after coronary artery bypass graft. The onset of DD affects patients’ prognosis in term of weaning from mechanical ventilation and hospital length of stay. The authors present a narrative review about diaphragm physiology, techniques used to assess diaphragm function, and the clinical application of diaphragm ultrasound in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. View this paper
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11 pages, 854 KiB  
Review
Exercise, Diet and Sleeping as Regenerative Medicine Adjuvants: Obesity and Ageing as Illustrations
by Abdelaziz Ghanemi, Mayumi Yoshioka and Jonny St-Amand
Medicines 2022, 9(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines9010007 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5099
Abstract
Regenerative medicine uses the biological and medical knowledge on how the cells and tissue regenerate and evolve in order to develop novel therapies. Health conditions such as ageing, obesity and cancer lead to an impaired regeneration ability. Exercise, diet choices and sleeping pattern [...] Read more.
Regenerative medicine uses the biological and medical knowledge on how the cells and tissue regenerate and evolve in order to develop novel therapies. Health conditions such as ageing, obesity and cancer lead to an impaired regeneration ability. Exercise, diet choices and sleeping pattern have significant impacts on regeneration biology via diverse pathways including reducing the inflammatory and oxidative components. Thus, exercise, diet and sleeping management can be optimized towards therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine. It could allow to prevent degeneration, optimize the biological regeneration and also provide adjuvants for regenerative medicine. Full article
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17 pages, 502 KiB  
Review
The Dilemma of Reconstructive Material Choice for Orbital Floor Fracture: A Narrative Review
by Akash Sivam and Natalie Enninghorst
Medicines 2022, 9(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines9010006 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3237
Abstract
The aim of this study is to present a narrative review of the properties of materials currently used for orbital floor reconstruction. Orbital floor fractures, due to their complex anatomy, physiology, and aesthetic concerns, pose complexities regarding management. Since the 1950s, a myriad [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to present a narrative review of the properties of materials currently used for orbital floor reconstruction. Orbital floor fractures, due to their complex anatomy, physiology, and aesthetic concerns, pose complexities regarding management. Since the 1950s, a myriad of materials has been used to reconstruct orbital floor fractures. This narrative review synthesises the findings of literature retrieved from search of PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. This narrative review was conducted of 66 studies on reconstructive materials. Ideal material properties are that they are resorbable, osteoconductive, resistant to infection, minimally reactive, do not induce capsule formation, allow for bony ingrowth, are cheap, and readily available. Autologous implants provide reliable, lifelong, and biocompatible material choices. Allogenic materials pose a threat of catastrophic disease transmission. Newer alloplastic materials have gained popularity. Consideration must be made when deliberating the use of permanent alloplastic materials that are a foreign body with potential body interactions, or the use of resorbable alloplastic materials failing to provide adequate support for orbital contents. It is vital that surgeons have an appropriate knowledge of materials so that they are used appropriately and reduce the risks of complications. Full article
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13 pages, 2519 KiB  
Review
Diaphragm Ultrasound in Cardiac Surgery: State of the Art
by Abdallah Fayssoil, Nicolas Mansencal, Lee S. Nguyen, David Orlikowski, Hélène Prigent, Jean Bergounioux, Djillali Annane and Frédéric Lofaso
Medicines 2022, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines9010005 - 11 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4079
Abstract
In cardiac surgery, patients are at risk of phrenic nerve injury, which leads to diaphragm dysfunction and acute respiratory failure. Diaphragm dysfunction (DD) is relatively frequent in cardiac surgery and particularly affects patients after coronary artery bypass graft. The onset of DD affects [...] Read more.
In cardiac surgery, patients are at risk of phrenic nerve injury, which leads to diaphragm dysfunction and acute respiratory failure. Diaphragm dysfunction (DD) is relatively frequent in cardiac surgery and particularly affects patients after coronary artery bypass graft. The onset of DD affects patients’ prognosis in term of weaning from mechanical ventilation and hospital length of stay. The authors present a narrative review about diaphragm physiology, techniques used to assess diaphragm function, and the clinical application of diaphragm ultrasound in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Full article
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12 pages, 600 KiB  
Article
Toxic Metal Concentrations in Drinking Water and Possible Effect on Sex Hormones among Men in Sabongida-Ora, Edo State, Nigeria
by Osaro Ogie Enehizena and Mathias A. Emokpae
Medicines 2022, 9(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines9010004 - 07 Jan 2022
Viewed by 2277
Abstract
Drinking water can be a potential source of toxic metals, which are a known leading cause of infertility in men. This study determines the concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) in drinking water (borehole, hand-dug well and treated water) [...] Read more.
Drinking water can be a potential source of toxic metals, which are a known leading cause of infertility in men. This study determines the concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) in drinking water (borehole, hand-dug well and treated water) and sex hormone levels (serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PROL), estradiol (E2), progesterone (PROG), and testosterone (T) in males who drink water mainly from these sources. The concentrations of Cd, and Pb in hand-dug wells were higher than the permissible limit recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) while Zn and Cu were within the permissible levels in drinking water. Blood Cd and Pb levels were significantly higher (p < 0.001) among subjects who consumed hand-dug and borehole water than treated water, while serum Zn was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in hand-dug well and borehole water consumers than in control subjects. Also, serum FSH (p < 0.001), LH (p < 0.001), E2 (p < 0.002), PROG (p < 0.04) and T (p < 0.001) were significantly lower among hand-dug well and borehole water consumers than controls, while PROL (p < 0.001) was significantly higher in hand-dug well and borehole water consumers than controls. Blood Cd and Pb levels were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in hand-dug well water consumers than borehole water consumers. The consumption of water from hand-dug wells may have adverse reproductive sequelae among consumers. Full article
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8 pages, 296 KiB  
Article
The Potential Impact of Blood System on Dietary Habits and Smoking
by Ioannis Tsamesidis, Evangelia Stalika, Chinedu O. Egwu, Agathi Pritsa, Maria Parpori, Argyrios Gkinoudis, Diana Samara and Evgenia Lymperaki
Medicines 2022, 9(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines9010003 - 05 Jan 2022
Viewed by 2979
Abstract
The ‘Blood-Type’ diet advises individuals to eat according to their ABO blood group to improve their health and decrease the risk of chronic diseases. However, the food preferences of individuals with different blood groups have not been examined. The aim of our study [...] Read more.
The ‘Blood-Type’ diet advises individuals to eat according to their ABO blood group to improve their health and decrease the risk of chronic diseases. However, the food preferences of individuals with different blood groups have not been examined. The aim of our study was to investigate, in healthy regular blood donors (rBDs), the associations of smoke, alcohol, caffeine, vitamin and fat intake with their different blood groups and if ABO groups could be a potential predictor tool for disease prevention. A total of 329 volunteers were divided into four groups according to their ABO types: Group 1 (A) comprised 141 rBDs; Group 2 (B), 65 rBDs; Group 3 (O), 96 rBDs; and Group 4, 27 rBDs. Additionally, they were divided into two groups according to their rhesus types and their preferences for smoke, too. Dietary intake was assessed using 3-day food recall and the Food Processor computer program for nutrient analysis. Alcohol, caffeine, sugar and Vitamin D consumption were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the O group. The A group presented statistically significantly (p < 0.05) greater preferences for cholesterol intake and a higher trend for smoking (25%) habits compared with all the other groups, whereas Group B preferred more fatty foods. The blood group AB appeared to be the most controlled food intake group. Regarding the rhesus comparisons, alcohol; caffeine; and Vitamin C, D, E and K consumptions were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in rhesus-positive individuals than their rhesus-negative counterparts. For the non-smoker group, compared with the smokers, a higher consumption of Vitamin D and fibers was found. In conclusion, in the present study, statistically significant correlations of the ABO and rhesus system with some dietary parameters were found, indicating a consequent influence of these preferences on the progression of different diseases. Full article
13 pages, 1241 KiB  
Review
Impact of Drug Pressure versus Limited Access to Drug in Malaria Control: The Dilemma
by Chinedu Ogbonnia Egwu, Nwogo Ajuka Obasi, Chinyere Aloke, Joseph Nwafor, Ioannis Tsamesidis, Jennifer Chukwu and Sunday Elom
Medicines 2022, 9(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines9010002 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3216
Abstract
Malaria burden has severe impact on the world. Several arsenals, including the use of antimalarials, are in place to curb the malaria burden. However, the application of these antimalarials has two extremes, limited access to drug and drug pressure, which may have similar [...] Read more.
Malaria burden has severe impact on the world. Several arsenals, including the use of antimalarials, are in place to curb the malaria burden. However, the application of these antimalarials has two extremes, limited access to drug and drug pressure, which may have similar impact on malaria control, leading to treatment failure through divergent mechanisms. Limited access to drugs ensures that patients do not get the right doses of the antimalarials in order to have an effective plasma concentration to kill the malaria parasites, which leads to treatment failure and overall reduction in malaria control via increased transmission rate. On the other hand, drug pressure can lead to the selection of drug resistance phenotypes in a subpopulation of the malaria parasites as they mutate in order to adapt. This also leads to a reduction in malaria control. Addressing these extremes in antimalarial application can be essential in maintaining the relevance of the conventional antimalarials in winning the war against malaria. Full article
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17 pages, 5448 KiB  
Article
Hydroethanolic Extract of Defatted Buchholzia coriacea Seeds Alleviates Tamoxifen-Induced Hepatic Triglyceride Accumulation, Inflammation and Oxidative Distress in Rat
by Ayokanmi Ore, Abideen Idowu Adeogun and Oluseyi Adeboye Akinloye
Medicines 2022, 9(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines9010001 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2587
Abstract
Background: Tamoxifen (TMX) has proven to be effective in the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. However, long-term use of TMX is associated with hepatic steatosis, oxidative liver injury and hepatocarcinoma. Buchholzia coriacea seeds (BCS) have been widely applied in traditional medicine due [...] Read more.
Background: Tamoxifen (TMX) has proven to be effective in the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. However, long-term use of TMX is associated with hepatic steatosis, oxidative liver injury and hepatocarcinoma. Buchholzia coriacea seeds (BCS) have been widely applied in traditional medicine due to their nutritional and therapeutic potentials. This study investigates the protective effect of hydroethanolic extract of (defatted) B. coriacea seeds (HEBCS) against TMX–induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods: Thirty-six (36) male albino rats were divided into six groups (n = 6/group). Group I served as control. Group II received 50 mg/kg/day TMX orally (p.o.) (TMX) for 21 days, group III received TMX plus 125 mg/kg/d HEBCS p.o. (HEBCS 125) for 21 days, group IV received TMX plus 250 mg/kg/d HEBCS p.o. (HEBCS 250) for 21 days and rats in group V and VI received HEBCS 125 and HEBCS 250 respectively for 21 days. Results: Compared with the control, TMX caused a significant increase (p < 0.05) in serum hepatic function biomarkers: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase by 57%, 60% and 68% respectively. TMX also caused a significant increase in hepatic triglycerides level by 166% when compared with control and a significant decrease in serum HDL-cholesterol level by 37%. Compared with control, hepatic marker of inflammation, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) increased significantly by 220%, coupled with significant increase in expression of interleukin 6 and cyclooxygenase 2. There was also significant increase in levels of Biomarkers of oxidative stress, nitric oxide, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls in the TMX group by 89%, 175% and 114% respectively when compared with the control. Hepatic antioxidants, reduced glutathione (GSH) level and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) decreased significantly in the TMX group by 35%, 67%, 41%, 59% and 53% respectively when compared with the control. However, HEBCS at 250 mg/kg significantly protected against TMX–induced hepatotoxicity by decreasing hepatic triglyceride content, serum hepatic function biomarkers, hepatic inflammation and oxidative stress with significant improvement in hepatic antioxidant system. Histopathological findings show that HEBCS alleviate TMX–induced hepatocyte ballooning. Conclusions: Current data suggest that HEBCS protected against TMX–induced hepatotoxicity in rats. HEBCS may be useful in managing TMX–induced toxicities in breast cancer patients. It may also be helpful against other forms of liver injury involving steatosis, inflammation, free radicals, and oxidative damage. Full article
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