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Toxics, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2016) – 7 articles

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Article
Urinary Phthalate Metabolites and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in a Mexican-American Cohort: Variability in Early and Late Pregnancy
Toxics 2016, 4(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics4010007 - 14 Mar 2016
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 3203
Abstract
People are exposed to phthalates through their wide use as plasticizers and in personal care products. Many phthalates are endocrine disruptors and have been associated with adverse health outcomes. However, knowledge gaps exist in understanding the molecular mechanisms associated with the effects of [...] Read more.
People are exposed to phthalates through their wide use as plasticizers and in personal care products. Many phthalates are endocrine disruptors and have been associated with adverse health outcomes. However, knowledge gaps exist in understanding the molecular mechanisms associated with the effects of exposure in early and late pregnancy. In this study, we examined the relationship of eleven urinary phthalate metabolites with isoprostane, an established marker of oxidative stress, among pregnant Mexican-American women from an agricultural cohort. Isoprostane levels were on average 20% higher at 26 weeks than at 13 weeks of pregnancy. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations suggested relatively consistent phthalate exposures over pregnancy. The relationship between phthalate metabolite concentrations and isoprostane levels was significant for the sum of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and the sum of high molecular weight metabolites with the exception of monobenzyl phthalate, which was not associated with oxidative stress at either time point. In contrast, low molecular weight metabolite concentrations were not associated with isoprostane at 13 weeks, but this relationship became stronger later in pregnancy (p-value = 0.009 for the sum of low molecular weight metabolites). Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to phthalates may influence oxidative stress, which is consistent with their relationship with obesity and other adverse health outcomes. Full article
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Article
Transcriptional Suppression of Renal Antioxidant Enzyme Systems in Guinea Pigs Exposed to Polymerized Cell-Free Hemoglobin
Toxics 2016, 4(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics4010006 - 19 Feb 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2629
Abstract
Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) are being developed as oxygen and plasma volume-expanding therapeutics though their potential to promote oxidative tissue injury has raised safety concerns. Using a guinea pig exchange transfusion model, we examined the effects of polymerized bovine hemoglobin (HbG) on the [...] Read more.
Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) are being developed as oxygen and plasma volume-expanding therapeutics though their potential to promote oxidative tissue injury has raised safety concerns. Using a guinea pig exchange transfusion model, we examined the effects of polymerized bovine hemoglobin (HbG) on the transcriptional regulation, activity, and expression of the renal antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). HbG infusion downregulated the mRNA levels for genes encoding SOD isoforms 1-3, GPx1, GPx3, GPx4, and CAT. This transcriptional suppression correlated with decreased enzymatic activities for SOD, CAT, and GPx. Immunostaining revealed decreased protein expression of SOD1, CAT, and GPx1 primarily in renal cortical tubules. DNA methylation analyses identified CpG hypermethylation in the gene promoters for SOD1-3, GPx1, GPx3, and GPx4, suggesting an epigenetic-based mechanism underlying the observed gene repression. HbG also induced oxidative stress as evidenced by increased renal lipid peroxidation end-products and 4-HNE immunostaining, which could be the result of the depleted antioxidant defenses and/or serve as a trigger for increased DNA methylation. Together, these findings provide evidence that the renal exposure to HbG suppresses the function of major antioxidant defense systems which may have relevant implications for understanding the safety of hemoglobin-based products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicities of Therapeutic Agents Used in Medicine)
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Review
Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS): A New Tool for the Analysis of Toxicological Effects on Single Cell Level
Toxics 2016, 4(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics4010005 - 15 Feb 2016
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4168
Abstract
Single cell imaging mass spectrometry opens up a complete new perspective for strategies in toxicological risk assessment and drug discovery. In particular, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) with its high spatial and depth resolution is becoming part of the imaging mass spectrometry [...] Read more.
Single cell imaging mass spectrometry opens up a complete new perspective for strategies in toxicological risk assessment and drug discovery. In particular, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) with its high spatial and depth resolution is becoming part of the imaging mass spectrometry toolbox used for single cell analysis. Recent instrumentation advancements in combination with newly developed cluster ion guns allow 3-dimensional reconstruction of single cells together with a spatially resolved compound location and quantification on nanoscale depth level. The exact location and quantification of a single compound or even of a set of compounds is no longer restricted to the two dimensional space within single cells, but is available for voxels, a cube-sized 3-dimensional space, rather than pixels. The information gathered from one voxel is further analysed using multivariate statistical methodology like maximum autocorrelation factors to co-locate the compounds of interest within intracellular organelles like nucleus, mitochondria or golgi apparatus. Furthermore, the cell membrane may be resolved, including adhering compounds and potential changes of the lipid patterns. The generated information can be used further for a first evaluation of intracellular target specifity of new drug candidates or for the toxicological risk assessment of environmental chemicals and their intracellular metabolites. Additionally, single cell lipidomics and metabolomics enable for the first time an in-depth understanding of the activation or inhibition of cellular biosynthesis and signalling pathways. Full article
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Article
Contributing Factors for Acute Illness/Injury from Childhood Pesticide Exposure in North Carolina, USA, 2007–2013
Toxics 2016, 4(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics4010004 - 02 Feb 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2521
Abstract
Between 2007 and 2013, there were 685 events with evidence of a relationship between pesticide exposure and acute illness/injury among persons less than 18 years old in North Carolina (United States). Median age of children affected was 4.3 years (range: 0.2–17.9). Distribution by [...] Read more.
Between 2007 and 2013, there were 685 events with evidence of a relationship between pesticide exposure and acute illness/injury among persons less than 18 years old in North Carolina (United States). Median age of children affected was 4.3 years (range: 0.2–17.9). Distribution by gender was similar across all age groups. One fatality and four high severity events were observed. The greatest proportion (42%) of events had ocular exposures, followed by dermal (25%) and inhalation (18%) exposures. When more than one route of exposure occurred, dermal and ocular routes were the most common (46%). Almost all events took place indoors and 32 events involved contact with pets. Insecticides (53%) and insect repellants (31%) were the most frequent agents contributing to these events. Manual application of pesticides contributed to the greatest number of events (25%), while application through a pressurized can and use of a trigger pump were involved in 21% and 15% of events, respectively. Additional contributors were due to inappropriate storage of pesticides and improper use of the pesticide. These contributing factors can be removed or minimized if pesticides are stored outside the residence or out of the reach of children and pets, and adequate ventilation is ensured whenever pesticides are applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Risk Assessment of Pesticide Exposure)
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Communication
Metal and Microelement Biomarkers of Neurodegeneration in Early Life Permethrin-Treated Rats
Toxics 2016, 4(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics4010003 - 29 Jan 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2617
Abstract
Hair is a non-invasive biological material useful in the biomonitoring of trace elements because it is a vehicle for substance excretion from the body, and it permits evaluating long-term metal exposure. Here, hair from an animal model of neurodegeneration, induced by early life [...] Read more.
Hair is a non-invasive biological material useful in the biomonitoring of trace elements because it is a vehicle for substance excretion from the body, and it permits evaluating long-term metal exposure. Here, hair from an animal model of neurodegeneration, induced by early life permethrin treatment from the sixth to 21th day of life, has been analyzed with the aim to assess if metal and microelement content could be used as biomarkers. A hair trace element assay was performed by the ICP-MS technique in six- and 12-month-old rats. A significant increase of As, Mg, S and Zn was measured in the permethrin-treated group at 12 months compared to six months, while Si and Cu/Zn were decreased. K, Cu/Zn and S were increased in the treated group compared to age-matched controls at six and 12 months, respectively. Cr significantly decreased in the treated group at 12 months. PCA analysis showed both a best difference between treated and age-matched control groups at six months. The present findings support the evidence that the Cu/Zn ratio and K, measured at six months, are the best biomarkers for neurodegeneration. This study supports the use of hair analysis to identify biomarkers of neurodegeneration induced by early life permethrin pesticide exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Risk Assessment of Pesticide Exposure)
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Editorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Toxics in 2015
Toxics 2016, 4(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics4010002 - 21 Jan 2016
Viewed by 1601
Abstract
The editors of Toxics would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2015. [...] Full article
Editorial
Farmers’ Exposure to Pesticides: Toxicity Types and Ways of Prevention
Toxics 2016, 4(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics4010001 - 08 Jan 2016
Cited by 162 | Viewed by 10454
Abstract
Synthetic pesticides are extensively used in agriculture to control harmful pests and prevent crop yield losses or product damage. Because of high biological activity and, in certain cases, long persistence in the environment, pesticides may cause undesirable effects to human health and to [...] Read more.
Synthetic pesticides are extensively used in agriculture to control harmful pests and prevent crop yield losses or product damage. Because of high biological activity and, in certain cases, long persistence in the environment, pesticides may cause undesirable effects to human health and to the environment. Farmers are routinely exposed to high levels of pesticides, usually much greater than those of consumers. Farmers’ exposure mainly occurs during the preparation and application of the pesticide spray solutions and during the cleaning-up of spraying equipment. Farmers who mix, load, and spray pesticides can be exposed to these chemicals due to spills and splashes, direct spray contact as a result of faulty or missing protective equipment, or even drift. However, farmers can be also exposed to pesticides even when performing activities not directly related to pesticide use. Farmers who perform manual labor in areas treated with pesticides can face major exposure from direct spray, drift from neighboring fields, or by contact with pesticide residues on the crop or soil. This kind of exposure is often underestimated. The dermal and inhalation routes of entry are typically the most common routes of farmers’ exposure to pesticides. Dermal exposure during usual pesticide handling takes place in body areas that remain uncovered by protective clothing, such as the face and the hands. Farmers’ exposure to pesticides can be reduced through less use of pesticides and through the correct use of the appropriate type of personal protective equipment in all stages of pesticide handling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Risk Assessment of Pesticide Exposure)
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