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Article

Contributing Factors for Acute Illness/Injury from Childhood Pesticide Exposure in North Carolina, USA, 2007–2013

1
Division of Public Health, North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, 1912 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, NC 27699-1912, USA
2
Department of Horticultural Science, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7609, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christos Damalas
Received: 18 December 2015 / Revised: 22 January 2016 / Accepted: 25 January 2016 / Published: 2 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Risk Assessment of Pesticide Exposure)
Between 2007 and 2013, there were 685 events with evidence of a relationship between pesticide exposure and acute illness/injury among persons less than 18 years old in North Carolina (United States). Median age of children affected was 4.3 years (range: 0.2–17.9). Distribution by gender was similar across all age groups. One fatality and four high severity events were observed. The greatest proportion (42%) of events had ocular exposures, followed by dermal (25%) and inhalation (18%) exposures. When more than one route of exposure occurred, dermal and ocular routes were the most common (46%). Almost all events took place indoors and 32 events involved contact with pets. Insecticides (53%) and insect repellants (31%) were the most frequent agents contributing to these events. Manual application of pesticides contributed to the greatest number of events (25%), while application through a pressurized can and use of a trigger pump were involved in 21% and 15% of events, respectively. Additional contributors were due to inappropriate storage of pesticides and improper use of the pesticide. These contributing factors can be removed or minimized if pesticides are stored outside the residence or out of the reach of children and pets, and adequate ventilation is ensured whenever pesticides are applied. View Full-Text
Keywords: pesticide; children; exposure; illness; injury pesticide; children; exposure; illness; injury
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MDPI and ACS Style

Barros, N.; Langley, R.; Buhler, W.; Brantham, K. Contributing Factors for Acute Illness/Injury from Childhood Pesticide Exposure in North Carolina, USA, 2007–2013. Toxics 2016, 4, 4. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics4010004

AMA Style

Barros N, Langley R, Buhler W, Brantham K. Contributing Factors for Acute Illness/Injury from Childhood Pesticide Exposure in North Carolina, USA, 2007–2013. Toxics. 2016; 4(1):4. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics4010004

Chicago/Turabian Style

Barros, Nirmalla, Ricky Langley, Wayne Buhler, and Kelly Brantham. 2016. "Contributing Factors for Acute Illness/Injury from Childhood Pesticide Exposure in North Carolina, USA, 2007–2013" Toxics 4, no. 1: 4. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics4010004

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