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Toxics, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2015), Pages 130-248

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Open AccessArticle Neurotoxic Effects of Platinum Compounds: Studies in vivo on Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis in the Immature Central Nervous System
Toxics 2015, 3(2), 224-248; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics3020224
Received: 30 April 2015 / Revised: 9 June 2015 / Accepted: 9 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1246 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Platinum compounds cause significant clinical neurotoxicity. Several studies highlight neurological complications especially in paediatric oncology patients with Central Nervous System (CNS) and non-CNS malignancies. To understand the toxicity mechanisms of platinum drugs at cellular and molecular levels in the immature brain, which appears
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Platinum compounds cause significant clinical neurotoxicity. Several studies highlight neurological complications especially in paediatric oncology patients with Central Nervous System (CNS) and non-CNS malignancies. To understand the toxicity mechanisms of platinum drugs at cellular and molecular levels in the immature brain, which appears more vulnerable to injury than in the adult one, we compared the effects in vivo of the most used platinum compounds, i.e., cisdichlorodiammineplatinum (cisplatin, cisPt), and the new [Pt(O,O′-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] (PtAcacDMS). As models of developing brain areas, we have chosen the cerebellum and hippocampus dentate gyrus. Both areas show the neurogenesis events, from proliferation to differentiation and synaptogenesis, and therefore allow comparing the action of platinum compounds with DNA and non-DNA targets. Here, we focused on the changes in the intracellular calcium homeostasis within CNS architecture, using two immunohistochemical markers, the calcium buffer protein Calbindin and Plasma Membrane Calcium ATPase. From the comparison of the cisPt and PtAcacDMS effects, it emerges how essential the equilibrium and synergy between CB and PMCA1 is or how important the presence of at least one of them is to warrant the morphology and function of nervous tissue and limit neuroarchitecture damages, depending on the peculiar and intrinsic properties of the developing CNS areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicities of Therapeutic Agents Used in Medicine)
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Open AccessReview Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy (CIPN)
Toxics 2015, 3(2), 198-223; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics3020198
Received: 24 April 2015 / Revised: 26 May 2015 / Accepted: 1 June 2015 / Published: 5 June 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1559 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mitochondrial dysfunction has a critical role in several disorders including chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathies (CIPN). This is due to a related dysregulation of pathways involving calcium signalling, reactive oxygen species and apoptosis. Vincristine is able to affect calcium movement through the Dorsal Root
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The mitochondrial dysfunction has a critical role in several disorders including chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathies (CIPN). This is due to a related dysregulation of pathways involving calcium signalling, reactive oxygen species and apoptosis. Vincristine is able to affect calcium movement through the Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRG) neuronal mitochondrial membrane, altering its homeostasis and leading to abnormal neuronal excitability. Paclitaxel induces the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in axons followed by mitochondrial membrane potential loss, increased reactive oxygen species generation, ATP level reduction, calcium release and mitochondrial swelling. Cisplatin and oxaliplatin form adducts with mitochondrial DNA producing inhibition of replication, disruption of transcription and morphological abnormalities within mitochondria in DRG neurons, leading to a gradual energy failure. Bortezomib is able to modify mitochondrial calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial respiratory chain. Moreover, the expression of a certain number of genes, including those controlling mitochondrial functions, was altered in patients with bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicities of Therapeutic Agents Used in Medicine)
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Open AccessReview Updates on Oxaliplatin-Induced Peripheral Neurotoxicity (OXAIPN)
Toxics 2015, 3(2), 187-197; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics3020187
Received: 3 May 2015 / Revised: 20 May 2015 / Accepted: 26 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OXAIPN) is of great clinical interest as it ranks among the most common dose limiting toxicities of oxaliplatin (OXA) administration with an obvious impact on the outcome of cancer patients. In addition, OXAIPN has a detrimental effect on the quality
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Oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OXAIPN) is of great clinical interest as it ranks among the most common dose limiting toxicities of oxaliplatin (OXA) administration with an obvious impact on the outcome of cancer patients. In addition, OXAIPN has a detrimental effect on the quality of life of cancer patients because it can be long lasting or even permanent. It has a unique spectrum of clinical presentation, being manifested with two distinct syndromes: the acute neurotoxicity that appears soon after OXA administration and is usually transient, and the chronic cumulative syndrome that resembles the characteristics of all platinum compounds. Despite advances in research in relation to the elucidation of the true OXAIPN pathogenesis, characteristics and management, there are still several open issues to be addressed. One of the most important open issues is to determine reliable biomarkers to allow prompt identification of patients at high risk to develop OXAIPN and towards this view well designed genome wide analyses are warranted to adequately address this gap in knowledge. Recent updates are provided in this article in relation to the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, pharmacogenetics and management of OXAIPN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicities of Therapeutic Agents Used in Medicine)
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Open AccessReview Speciation in Metal Toxicity and Metal-Based Therapeutics
Toxics 2015, 3(2), 170-186; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics3020170
Received: 16 March 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2015 / Accepted: 22 April 2015 / Published: 28 April 2015
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Abstract
Metallic elements, ions and compounds produce varying degrees of toxicity in organisms with which they come into contact. Metal speciation is critical to understanding these adverse effects; the adjectives “heavy” and “toxic” are not helpful in describing the biological properties of individual elements,
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Metallic elements, ions and compounds produce varying degrees of toxicity in organisms with which they come into contact. Metal speciation is critical to understanding these adverse effects; the adjectives “heavy” and “toxic” are not helpful in describing the biological properties of individual elements, but detailed chemical structures are. As a broad generalization, the metallic form of an element is inert, and the ionic salts are the species that show more significant bioavailability. Yet the salts and other chelates of a metal ion can give rise to quite different toxicities, as exemplified by a range of carcinogenic potential for various nickel species. Another important distinction comes when a metallic element is organified, increasing its lipophilicity and hence its ability to penetrate the blood brain barrier, as is seen, for example, with organic mercury and tin species. Some metallic elements, such as gold and platinum, are themselves useful therapeutic agents in some forms, while other species of the same element can be toxic, thus focusing attention on species interconversions in evaluating metal-based drugs. The therapeutic use of metal-chelating agents introduces new species of the target metal in vivo, and this can affect not only its desired detoxification, but also introduce a potential for further mechanisms of toxicity. Examples of therapeutic iron chelator species are discussed in this context, as well as the more recent aspects of development of chelation therapy for uranium exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Heavy Metals Toxicology)
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Open AccessReview Taxane-Induced Peripheral Neurotoxicity
Toxics 2015, 3(2), 152-169; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics3020152
Received: 1 April 2015 / Revised: 19 April 2015 / Accepted: 21 April 2015 / Published: 28 April 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Taxane-derived agents are chemotherapy drugs widely employed in cancer treatment. Among them, paclitaxel and docetaxel are most commonly administered, but newer formulations are being investigated. Taxane antineoplastic activity is mainly based on the ability of the drugs to promote microtubule assembly, leading to
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Taxane-derived agents are chemotherapy drugs widely employed in cancer treatment. Among them, paclitaxel and docetaxel are most commonly administered, but newer formulations are being investigated. Taxane antineoplastic activity is mainly based on the ability of the drugs to promote microtubule assembly, leading to mitotic arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. Peripheral neurotoxicity is the major non-hematological adverse effect of taxane, often manifested as painful neuropathy experienced during treatment, and it is sometimes irreversible. Unfortunately, taxane-induced neurotoxicity is an uncertainty prior to the initiation of treatment. The present review aims to dissect current knowledge on real incidence, underlying pathophysiology, clinical features and predisposing factors related with the development of taxane-induced neuropathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicities of Therapeutic Agents Used in Medicine)
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Open AccessReview Live and Let Die: Roles of Autophagy in Cadmium Nephrotoxicity
Toxics 2015, 3(2), 130-151; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics3020130
Received: 15 March 2015 / Revised: 30 March 2015 / Accepted: 3 April 2015 / Published: 13 April 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1187 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The transition metal ion cadmium (Cd2+) is a significant environmental contaminant. With a biological half-life of ~20 years, Cd2+ accumulates in the kidney cortex, where it particularly damages proximal tubule (PT) cells and can result in renal fibrosis, failure, or
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The transition metal ion cadmium (Cd2+) is a significant environmental contaminant. With a biological half-life of ~20 years, Cd2+ accumulates in the kidney cortex, where it particularly damages proximal tubule (PT) cells and can result in renal fibrosis, failure, or cancer. Because death represents a powerful means by which cells avoid malignant transformation, it is crucial to clearly identify and understand the pathways that determine cell fate in chronic Cd2+ nephrotoxicity. When cells are subjected to stress, they make a decision to adapt and survive, or—depending on the magnitude and duration of stress—to die by several modes of death (programmed cell death), including autophagic cell death (ACD). Autophagy is part of a larger system of intracellular protein degradation and represents the channel by which organelles and long-lived proteins are delivered to the lysosome for degradation. Basal autophagy levels in all eukaryotic cells serve as a dynamic physiological recycling system, but they can also be induced by intra- or extracellular stress and pathological processes, such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In a context-dependent manner, autophagy can either be protective and hence contribute to survival, or promote death by non-apoptotic or apoptotic pathways. So far, the role of autophagy in Cd2+-induced nephrotoxicity has remained unsettled due to contradictory results. In this review, we critically survey the current literature on autophagy in Cd2+-induced nephrotoxicity in light of our own ongoing studies. Data obtained in kidney cells illustrate a dual and complex function of autophagy in a stimulus- and time-dependent manner that possibly reflects distinct outcomes in vitro and in vivo. A better understanding of the context-specific regulation of cell fate by autophagy may ultimately contribute to the development of preventive and novel therapeutic strategies for acute and chronic Cd2+ nephrotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Heavy Metals Toxicology)
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