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Article

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Applied to the Detection of Multiple Adulterants in Roasted and Ground Arabica Coffee

1
Food and Nutrition Graduate Program, Federal University of State of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Pasteur 296, Rio de Janeiro 22290-240, Brazil
2
Embrapa Food Agroindustry, Av. das Américas 29501, Rio de Janeiro 23020-470, Brazil
3
CBQF—Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina, Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Rua Diogo Botelho 1327, 4169-005 Porto, Portugal
4
LAQV/REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Bromatology and Hydrology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Simon Haughey
Foods 2022, 11(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010061
Received: 16 November 2021 / Revised: 13 December 2021 / Accepted: 16 December 2021 / Published: 28 December 2021
Roasted coffee has been the target of increasingly complex adulterations. Sensitive, non-destructive, rapid and multicomponent techniques for their detection are sought after. This work proposes the detection of several common adulterants (corn, barley, soybean, rice, coffee husks and robusta coffee) in roasted ground arabica coffee (from different geographic regions), combining near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics (Principal Component Analysis—PCA). Adulterated samples were composed of one to six adulterants, ranging from 0.25 to 80% (w/w). The results showed that NIR spectroscopy was able to discriminate pure arabica coffee samples from adulterated ones (for all the concentrations tested), including robusta coffees or coffee husks, and independently of being single or multiple adulterations. The identification of the adulterant in the sample was only feasible for single or double adulterations and in concentrations ≥10%. NIR spectroscopy also showed potential for the geographical discrimination of arabica coffees (South and Central America). View Full-Text
Keywords: coffee; adulteration; infrared spectroscopy; authenticity; chemometrics coffee; adulteration; infrared spectroscopy; authenticity; chemometrics
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MDPI and ACS Style

de Carvalho Couto, C.; Freitas-Silva, O.; Morais Oliveira, E.M.; Sousa, C.; Casal, S. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Applied to the Detection of Multiple Adulterants in Roasted and Ground Arabica Coffee. Foods 2022, 11, 61. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010061

AMA Style

de Carvalho Couto C, Freitas-Silva O, Morais Oliveira EM, Sousa C, Casal S. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Applied to the Detection of Multiple Adulterants in Roasted and Ground Arabica Coffee. Foods. 2022; 11(1):61. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010061

Chicago/Turabian Style

de Carvalho Couto, Cinthia, Otniel Freitas-Silva, Edna Maria Morais Oliveira, Clara Sousa, and Susana Casal. 2022. "Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Applied to the Detection of Multiple Adulterants in Roasted and Ground Arabica Coffee" Foods 11, no. 1: 61. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010061

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