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Article

Generation of over 1000 Diffraction Spots from 2D Graded Photonic Super-Crystals

1
Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203, USA
2
Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854, USA
3
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Photonics 2020, 7(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020027
Received: 5 March 2020 / Revised: 4 April 2020 / Accepted: 8 April 2020 / Published: 10 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Optical Materials and Devices)
For the first time, we are able to generate over 1000 diffraction spots from a graded photonic super-crystal with a unit super-cell size of 12a × 12a where a is the lattice constant and hole radii are gradually changed in dual directions. The diffraction pattern from the graded photonic super-crystal reveals unique diffraction properties. The first order diffractions of (±1,0) or (0,±1) disappear. Fractional diffraction orders are observed in the diffraction pattern inside a square with vertices of (1,1), (1,−1), (−1,−1) and (−1,−1). The fractional diffraction can be understood from lattices with a period of a. However, a dual-lattice model is considered in order to explain higher-order diffractions. E-field intensity simulations show a coupling and re-distribution among fractional orders of Bloch waves. There are a total of 12 × 12 spots in E-field intensity in the unit supercell corresponding to 12 × 12 fractional diffraction orders in the diffraction pattern and 12 × 12 fractional orders of momentum in the first Brillouin zone in k-space. View Full-Text
Keywords: graded index photonic crystal; graded photonic super-crystal; diffraction; E-beam lithography; electromagnetic simulation graded index photonic crystal; graded photonic super-crystal; diffraction; E-beam lithography; electromagnetic simulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hassan, S.; Jiang, Y.; Alnasser, K.; Hurley, N.; Zhang, H.; Philipose, U.; Lin, Y. Generation of over 1000 Diffraction Spots from 2D Graded Photonic Super-Crystals. Photonics 2020, 7, 27. https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020027

AMA Style

Hassan S, Jiang Y, Alnasser K, Hurley N, Zhang H, Philipose U, Lin Y. Generation of over 1000 Diffraction Spots from 2D Graded Photonic Super-Crystals. Photonics. 2020; 7(2):27. https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020027

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hassan, Safaa; Jiang, Yan; Alnasser, Khadijah; Hurley, Noah; Zhang, Hualiang; Philipose, Usha; Lin, Yuankun. 2020. "Generation of over 1000 Diffraction Spots from 2D Graded Photonic Super-Crystals" Photonics 7, no. 2: 27. https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020027

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