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Informatics, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2016)

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Open AccessArticle
Back-Off Time Calculation Algorithms in WSN
Informatics 2016, 3(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics3020009 - 22 Jun 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4210
Abstract
In a Mobile Wireless Sensor Mesh Network (MWSMN), based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, low power consumption is vitally important since the network devices are mostly battery driven. This is especially true for devices dependent on small form factors, such as those used [...] Read more.
In a Mobile Wireless Sensor Mesh Network (MWSMN), based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, low power consumption is vitally important since the network devices are mostly battery driven. This is especially true for devices dependent on small form factors, such as those used in wireless sensor network. This paper proposes four new approaches to reduce the Back-Off Time in ZigBee standard in order to minimize the collisions caused by transmission between neighbouring nodes within the mesh network. The four alternate algorithms for the Back-Off Time calculation are compared to the ZigBee standard Back-Off Time algorithm regarding their energy needs using the simulation suite OPNET Modeler. To study the behaviour of the parameters of all algorithms in all scenarios, the statistical Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) has been used and it shows that the null hypotheses are rejected except for one case. The results show that the two passive algorithms Tabu Search and Simulated Annealing search techniques are suitable for battery-driven, energy-sensible networks. The Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) approaches increase throughput and reduce the packet loss but cost more in terms of energy due to the implementation of additional control packets. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first approach for MWSMN that uses the Swarm Intelligence technique and the search solution algorithm for the Back-Off Time optimization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Choosing a Model for eConsult Specialist Remuneration: Factors to Consider
Informatics 2016, 3(2), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics3020008 - 18 Jun 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4582
Abstract
Electronic consultation (eConsult) is an innovative solution that allows specialists and primary care providers to communicate electronically, improving access to specialist care. Understanding the cost implications of different remuneration models available to pay specialists is of critical importance as adoption of these services [...] Read more.
Electronic consultation (eConsult) is an innovative solution that allows specialists and primary care providers to communicate electronically, improving access to specialist care. Understanding the cost implications of different remuneration models available to pay specialists is of critical importance as adoption of these services continues to increase. We used data collected through the Champlain BASE (Building Access to Specialists through eConsultation) eConsult service to simulate the cost implications of different remuneration models in Canada. The prorated hourly rate model averaged $45.72 CAD (Canadian Dollar) per eConsult while the prorated hourly rate with incentive averaged $51.90 CAD per eConsult, and the fee for service cost $60.50 CAD per eConsult. Paying all specialty groups to block three hours per week for eConsults averaged $337.44 CAD per eConsult and paying for 1-h blocks averaged $133.41 CAD per eConsult. As the remuneration of specialists is the largest cost driver of an established eConsult service, our findings can inform policymakers considering the implementation of eConsult or wishing to further develop an existing service. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Health 2016)
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Open AccessConcept Paper
Developing and Improving Student Non-Technical Skills in IT Education: A Literature Review and Model
Informatics 2016, 3(2), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics3020007 - 17 Jun 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4873
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to identify portions of the literature in the areas of Information Technology (IT) management, skills development, and curriculum development that support the design of a holistic conceptual framework for instruction in non-technical skills within the IT higher [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to identify portions of the literature in the areas of Information Technology (IT) management, skills development, and curriculum development that support the design of a holistic conceptual framework for instruction in non-technical skills within the IT higher education context. This article review provides a framework for understanding how the critical success factors related to IT and Information Systems (IS) professional success is impacted by developing students’ non-technical skills. The article culminates in a holistic conceptual framework for developing non-technical skills within the IT higher education context. Implications for theory and research are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information and Communication Technology in Higher Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Designing a Situational Awareness Information Display: Adopting an Affordance-Based Framework to Amplify User Experience in Environmental Interaction Design
Informatics 2016, 3(2), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics3020006 - 09 Jun 2016
Viewed by 4481
Abstract
User experience remains a crucial consideration when assessing the successfulness of information visualization systems. The theory of affordances provides a robust framework for user experience design. In this article, we demonstrate a design case that employs an affordance-based framework and evaluate the information [...] Read more.
User experience remains a crucial consideration when assessing the successfulness of information visualization systems. The theory of affordances provides a robust framework for user experience design. In this article, we demonstrate a design case that employs an affordance-based framework and evaluate the information visualization display design. SolarWheels is an interactive information visualization designed for large display walls in computer network control rooms to help cybersecurity analysts become aware of network status and emerging issues. Given the critical nature of this context, the status and performance of a computer network must be precisely monitored and remedied in real time. In this study, we consider various aspects of affordances in order to amplify the user experience via visualization and interaction design. SolarWheels visualizes the multilayer multidimensional computer network issues with a series of integrated circular visualizations inspired by the metaphor of the solar system. To amplify user interaction and experience, the system provides a three-zone physical interaction that allows multiple users to interact with the system. Users can read details at different levels depending on their distance from the display. An expert evaluation study, based on a four-layer affordance framework, was conducted to assess and improve the interactive visualization design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human–Information Interaction)
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Gateway-Based Energy Holes Avoidance Routing Protocol for WSN
Informatics 2016, 3(2), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics3020005 - 26 Apr 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4070
Abstract
In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), efficient energy conservation is required to prolong the lifetime of the network. In this work, we have given emphasis on balanced energy consumption and energy holes avoidance. This paper proposes a multi-gateway-based approach to reduce the transmission distance [...] Read more.
In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), efficient energy conservation is required to prolong the lifetime of the network. In this work, we have given emphasis on balanced energy consumption and energy holes avoidance. This paper proposes a multi-gateway-based approach to reduce the transmission distance between the sender and the sink node. The area to be monitored is divided into regions and gateway nodes are deployed at optimal positions. We have designed a transmission scheme, in which sensors in the sink region communicate directly to the sink, sensors in the gateway region communicate directly to the gateway, and sensors in the cluster region transmit their data directly to their respective cluster head which transmits data to the gateway in its region. If the distance between a cluster head and the sink is less than the distance between the cluster head and the gateway node, the cluster head transmits data to the sink instead of the gateway node. We have compared the proposed protocol with Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH), Gateway Based Energy Aware Multi-Hop Routing (M-GEAR), and Gateway Based Stable Election Protocol (GSEP) protocols. The protocol performs better than other protocols in terms of throughput, stability period, lifetime, residual energy, and the packet transmitted to the sink. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Interactive Spatiotemporal Analysis of Oil Spills Using Comap in North Dakota
Informatics 2016, 3(2), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics3020004 - 30 Mar 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3829
Abstract
The aim of the study is to analyze the oil spill pattern from various types of incidents and contaminants to determine the extent that incident data can be used as a baseline to prevent hazardous material releases and improve response activities at a [...] Read more.
The aim of the study is to analyze the oil spill pattern from various types of incidents and contaminants to determine the extent that incident data can be used as a baseline to prevent hazardous material releases and improve response activities at a state level. This study addresses the importance of collecting and sharing oil spill incidents as well as analytics using the data. Temporal, spatial and spatiotemporal analysis techniques are employed for the oil-spill related environmental incidents observed in the state of North Dakota, United States of America, from 2000 to 2014, as a result of the oil boom. Specifically, spatiotemporal methods are used to examine how the patterns of environmental incidents in North Dakota, which vary with the time of day, the day, the month, and the season. Results indicate that there were critical spatial and time variations in the distribution of environmental incidents. Application of spatiotemporal interaction visualization techniques, called comap has the potential to help planners and decision makers formulate policy to mitigate the risks associated with environmental incidents, improve safety, and allocate resources. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Enabling Virtual Sensing as a Service
Informatics 2016, 3(2), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics3020003 - 29 Mar 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4180
Abstract
In many situations, placing a physical sensor in the ideal position in or on the human body to acquire sensing data is incredibly difficult. Virtual sensors, in contrast to physical sensors, can provide indirect measurements by making use of other available sensor data. [...] Read more.
In many situations, placing a physical sensor in the ideal position in or on the human body to acquire sensing data is incredibly difficult. Virtual sensors, in contrast to physical sensors, can provide indirect measurements by making use of other available sensor data. In this paper, we demonstrate a virtual sensing application developed as a service on top of a cloud-based health sensor data management platform called Wiki-Health. The proposed application “implants” virtual sensors in the human body by integrating environmental, geographic and personal sensor data with physiological models to compute temperature estimations of various parts of the body. The feasibility of the proposed virtual sensing service is supported by a case study. The ability to share computational models relevant to do calculations on measured data on the go is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data and Analytics for Healthcare)
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