Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain and several additional symptoms such as fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, depressive episodes, and anxiety. The underlying pathophysiology of fibromyalgia is still poorly understood, and treatment is often unsatisfactory. Current research provides evidence for altered pain processing in chronic pain patients, and specifically in fibromyalgia patients, possibly based on altered functional connectivity and brain chemistry in brain regions within the pain processing system. Besides discussing evidence from studies applying brain imaging (specifically resting state fMRI (Functional magnetic resonance imaging)), the current review aims at providing an overview of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options. We will also summarize the most important results from recently performed brain imaging studies providing new insights into the potential mechanisms of various therapeutic approaches.
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