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Chemosensors 2018, 6(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6020013

Detection and Digital Resolution Counting of Nanoparticles with Optical Resonators and Applications in Biosensing

1
Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Science and University Institute of Materials, Faculty of Science, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain
2
Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
3
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
4
Biophotonics, National Laser Centre, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Label-Free Biosensors and Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract

The interaction between nanoparticles and the electromagnetic fields associated with optical nanostructures enables sensing with single-nanoparticle limits of detection and digital resolution counting of captured nanoparticles through their intrinsic dielectric permittivity, absorption, and scattering. This paper will review the fundamental sensing methods, device structures, and detection instruments that have demonstrated the capability to observe the binding and interaction of nanoparticles at the single-unit level, where the nanoparticles are comprised of biomaterial (in the case of a virus or liposome), metal (plasmonic and magnetic nanomaterials), or inorganic dielectric material (such as TiO2 or SiN). We classify sensing approaches based upon their ability to observe single-nanoparticle attachment/detachment events that occur in a specific location, versus approaches that are capable of generating images of nanoparticle attachment on a nanostructured surface. We describe applications that include study of biomolecular interactions, viral load monitoring, and enzyme-free detection of biomolecules in a test sample in the context of in vitro diagnostics. View Full-Text
Keywords: photonic crystal cavities; biosensors; nanoparticles; whispering gallery mode; reflection interference photonic crystal cavities; biosensors; nanoparticles; whispering gallery mode; reflection interference
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Ángel Aguirre, M.; Long, K.D.; Li, N.; Manoto, S.L.; Cunningham, B.T. Detection and Digital Resolution Counting of Nanoparticles with Optical Resonators and Applications in Biosensing. Chemosensors 2018, 6, 13.

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