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Healthcare, Volume 12, Issue 7 (April-1 2024) – 106 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): While our understanding of the active role of choroid plexus (CP) in brain homeostasis and immunosurveillance is still growing, much less is known about its role in MS pathophysiology. CP enlargement has been associated with both neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration across the MS spectrum. The transient infiltration of peripheral lymphocytes through the dysfunctional BCSFB and BBB into the CNS is considered critical, particularly during the early disease stages. As the disease progresses, the neuroinflammatory properties change, with later stages characterized by mild inflammation, behind a relatively intact or restored BCSFB. It may be suggested that the morphology and behavior of CP change with disease progression from primarily inflammatory to less inflammatory and predominantly hypoxic in progressive MS stages. View this paper
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26 pages, 1236 KiB  
Systematic Review
Drivers of COVID-19 Outcomes in Long-Term Care Facilities Using Multi-Level Analysis: A Systematic Review
by Mehri Karimi-Dehkordi, Heather M. Hanson, James Silvius and Adrian Wagg
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070807 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 844
Abstract
This study aimed to identify the individual, organizational, and environmental factors which contributed to COVID-19-related outcomes in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). A systematic review was conducted to summarize and synthesize empirical studies using a multi-level analysis approach to address the identified influential factors. [...] Read more.
This study aimed to identify the individual, organizational, and environmental factors which contributed to COVID-19-related outcomes in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). A systematic review was conducted to summarize and synthesize empirical studies using a multi-level analysis approach to address the identified influential factors. Five databases were searched on 23 May 2023. To be included in the review, studies had to be published in peer-reviewed journals or as grey literature containing relevant statistical data. The Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tool was employed to assess the methodological quality of each article included in this study. Of 2137 citations identified after exclusions, 99 records met the inclusion criteria. The predominant individual, organizational, and environmental factors that were most frequently found associated with the COVID-19 outbreak comprised older age, higher dependency level; lower staffing levels and lower star and subset domain ratings for the facility; and occupancy metrics and co-occurrences of outbreaks in counties and communities where the LTCFs were located, respectively. The primary individual, organizational, and environmental factors frequently linked to COVID-19-related deaths comprised age, and male sex; higher percentages of racial and ethnic minorities in LTCFs, as well as ownership types (including private, for-profit, and chain membership); and higher occupancy metrics and LTCF’s size and bed capacity, respectively. Unfolding the risk factors collectively may mitigate the risk of outbreaks and pandemic-related mortality in LTCFs during future endemic and pandemics through developing and improving interventions that address those significant factors. Full article
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15 pages, 607 KiB  
Article
Development and Validation of the Interprofessional Collaboration Practice Competency Scale (IPCPCS) for Clinical Nurses
by Yen-Fang Chou, Suh-Ing Hsieh, Yi-Ping Tseng, Shu-Ling Yeh, Ming-Chu Chiang, Chia-Chi Hsiao, Chiu-Tzu Lin, Shui-Tao Hu, Sue-Hsien Chen and Mei-Nan Liao
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 806; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070806 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 982
Abstract
Interprofessional collaborative practice is a core competency and is the key to strengthening health practice systems in order to deliver safe and high-quality nursing practice. However, there is no Interprofessional Collaboration Practice Competency Scale (IPCPCS) for clinical nurses in Taiwan. Therefore, the purposes [...] Read more.
Interprofessional collaborative practice is a core competency and is the key to strengthening health practice systems in order to deliver safe and high-quality nursing practice. However, there is no Interprofessional Collaboration Practice Competency Scale (IPCPCS) for clinical nurses in Taiwan. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to develop an IPCPCS and to verify its reliability and validity. This was a psychometric study with a cross-sectional survey using convenience sampling to recruit nurses from the seven hospitals of a medical foundation. A self-designed structured IPCPCS was rolled out via a Google survey. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, principal-axis factoring (PAF) with Promax rotation, Pearson correlation, reliability analysis, and one-way ANOVA. PAF analysis found that three factors could explain 77.76% of cumulative variance. These were collaborative leadership and interprofessional conflict resolution, interprofessional communication and team functioning, and role clarification and client-centered care. The internal consistency of the three factors (Cronbach’s α) was between 0.970 to 0.978, and the Pearson correlation coefficients were between 0.814 to 0.883. Significant differences were presented in the IPCPCS score by age, education level, total years of work experience, position on the nursing clinical ladder, and participation in interprofessional education. In conclusion, the three factors used in the IPCPCS have good reliability and construct validity. This scale can be used as an evaluation tool of in-service interprofessional education courses for clinical nurses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Nursing in Healthcare)
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11 pages, 245 KiB  
Brief Report
Return to Work in Breast Cancer Patients following an Interdisciplinary Rehabilitation Program in a Community-Based Cancer Rehabilitation Center: A Pilot Study
by Matthew Rong Jie Tay, Chin Jung Wong and Hui Zhen Aw
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 805; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070805 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 578
Abstract
Despite curative treatment and discharge from acute hospital settings, breast cancer patients often have cancer- and treatment-related morbidity which impairs them from returning to work. Hence, the role of community-based return to work rehabilitation programs is important to help these patients transition back [...] Read more.
Despite curative treatment and discharge from acute hospital settings, breast cancer patients often have cancer- and treatment-related morbidity which impairs them from returning to work. Hence, the role of community-based return to work rehabilitation programs is important to help these patients transition back to work. This was a retrospective cohort study involving patients with breast cancer conducted at a community-based cancer rehabilitation center. Patients were involved in an interdisciplinary vocational rehabilitation program involving physiatrists, occupational therapists, physiotherapists and social workers. We recruited 63 patients for this study cohort, with 46 (73.0%) patients ≤ 60 years old. After undergoing the rehabilitation program, there were 37 (58.7%) participants who successfully returned to work. These participants returned to work at either within 6 months (27.0%), 12 months (29.7%) or 24 months (43.2%) after enrollment into the program, with a majority enrolling in white collar jobs. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that significant negative factors for return to work were advanced stage of cancer (p = 0.004), along with clinically significant fatigue, measured on the Brief Fatigue Inventory (p < 0.001). However, perceived work ability (p = 0.020) was found to be a positive factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine)
12 pages, 644 KiB  
Systematic Review
Knee Arthrodesis for Periprosthetic Knee Infection: Fusion Rate, Complications, and Limb Salvage—A Systematic Review
by Michele Mercurio, Giorgio Gasparini, Erminia Cofano, Andrea Zappia, Filippo Familiari and Olimpio Galasso
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070804 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 648
Abstract
The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the outcomes of knee arthrodesis (KA) after periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the knee. Differences in clinical outcomes and complication rates among the intramedullary nailing (IMN), external fixation (EF), and compression plating (CP) procedures [...] Read more.
The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the outcomes of knee arthrodesis (KA) after periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the knee. Differences in clinical outcomes and complication rates among the intramedullary nailing (IMN), external fixation (EF), and compression plating (CP) procedures were compared. A total of 23 studies were included. Demographics, microbiological data, types of implants, surgical techniques with complications, reoperations, fusion, and amputation rates were reported. A total of 787 patients were evaluated, of whom 601 (76.4%), 166 (21%), and 19 (2.4%) underwent IMN, EF, and CP, respectively. The most common causative pathogen was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS). Fusion occurred in 71.9%, 78.8%, and 92.3% of the patients after IMN, EF, and CP, respectively, and no statistically significant difference was found. Reinfection rates were 14.6%, 15.1%, and 10.5% after IMN, EF, and CP, respectively, and no statistically significant difference was found. Conversion to amputation occurred in 4.3%, 5%, and 15.8% of patients after IMN, EF, and CP, respectively; there was a higher rate after CP than after EF. The IMN technique is the most common option used for managing PJI with KA. No differences in terms of fusion, reinfection, or conversion-to-amputation rates were reported between IMN and EF. CP is rarely used, and the high amputation rate represents an important limitation of this technique. Full article
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13 pages, 753 KiB  
Review
Lung Cancer Surgery in Octogenarians: Implications and Advantages of Artificial Intelligence in the Preoperative Assessment
by Massimiliano Bassi, Rita Vaz Sousa, Beatrice Zacchini, Anastasia Centofanti, Francesco Ferrante, Camilla Poggi, Carolina Carillo, Ylenia Pecoraro, Davide Amore, Daniele Diso, Marco Anile, Tiziano De Giacomo, Federico Venuta and Jacopo Vannucci
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 803; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070803 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 777
Abstract
The general world population is aging and patients are often diagnosed with early-stage lung cancer at an advanced age. Several studies have shown that age is not itself a contraindication for lung cancer surgery, and therefore, more and more octogenarians with early-stage lung [...] Read more.
The general world population is aging and patients are often diagnosed with early-stage lung cancer at an advanced age. Several studies have shown that age is not itself a contraindication for lung cancer surgery, and therefore, more and more octogenarians with early-stage lung cancer are undergoing surgery with curative intent. However, octogenarians present some peculiarities that make surgical treatment more challenging, so an accurate preoperative selection is mandatory. In recent years, new artificial intelligence techniques have spread worldwide in the diagnosis, treatment, and therapy of lung cancer, with increasing clinical applications. However, there is still no evidence coming out from trials specifically designed to assess the potential of artificial intelligence in the preoperative evaluation of octogenarian patients. The aim of this narrative review is to investigate, through the analysis of the available international literature, the advantages and implications that these tools may have in the preoperative assessment of this particular category of frail patients. In fact, these tools could represent an important support in the decision-making process, especially in octogenarian patients in whom the diagnostic and therapeutic options are often questionable. However, these technologies are still developing, and a strict human-led process is mandatory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Artificial Intelligence in Medicine)
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15 pages, 268 KiB  
Article
Experience of Older Patients with COPD Using Disease Management Apps: A Qualitative Study
by Xueqiong Zou, Pingping Sun, Mengjie Chen, Jiang Nan, Jing Gao, Xueying Huang, Yi Hou and Yuyu Jiang
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070802 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 765
Abstract
(1) Background: Digital medicine is developing in the management of chronic diseases in older people, but there is still a lack of information on the use of disease management apps in older patients with COPD. This study aims to explore the views and [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Digital medicine is developing in the management of chronic diseases in older people, but there is still a lack of information on the use of disease management apps in older patients with COPD. This study aims to explore the views and experience of older patients with COPD on disease management apps to provide a basis for the development and promotion of apps for geriatric diseases. (2) Methods: A descriptive qualitative research method was used. Older patients with COPD (N = 32) with experience using disease management apps participated in semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. (3) Results: Seven themes were defined: (a) feeling curious and worried when facing disease management apps for the first time; (b) actively overcoming barriers to use; (c) gradually becoming independent by continuous online learning; (d) feeling safe in the virtual environment; (e) gradually feeling new value in online interactions; (f) relying on disease management apps under long-term use; (g) expecting disease management apps to meet personalized needs. (4) Conclusions: The adoption and use of disease management apps by older people is a gradual process of acceptance, and they can obtain a wide range of benefits in health and life. Full article
12 pages, 679 KiB  
Article
Development and Validation of the Jordanian Diabetic Health Literacy Questionnaire: Enhancing Diabetes Management in Arabic-Speaking Populations
by Walid Al-Qerem, Anan Jarab, Judith Eberhardt, Fawaz Alasmari, Safa M. Alkaee and Zein H. Alsabaa
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 801; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070801 - 7 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 744
Abstract
(1) Background: Amidst the global rise in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), effective management of the disease has become increasingly important. Health literacy, particularly in non-English speaking populations, plays a crucial role in this management. To address the lack of suitable tools for [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Amidst the global rise in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), effective management of the disease has become increasingly important. Health literacy, particularly in non-English speaking populations, plays a crucial role in this management. To address the lack of suitable tools for Arabic-speaking diabetic patients, this study developed and validated the Jordanian Diabetic Health Literacy Questionnaire (JDHLQ). (2) Methods: A sample of 400 diabetic patients from Jordan, with a balance in gender, age, and educational background, was recruited from an endocrinology outpatient clinic. The JDHLQ, consisting of informative and communicative sections, underwent rigorous validation. Utilizing principal component analysis and Rasch analysis, the JDHL’s reliability and validity were evaluated. (3) Results: The results showed moderate proficiency in understanding and communicating diabetes-related information and confirmed the reliability and validity of the JDHLQ. (4) Conclusions: These findings emphasize the importance of culturally appropriate health literacy tools in enhancing patient understanding, engagement, and overall management of T2DM in Arabic-speaking communities. Full article
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12 pages, 556 KiB  
Article
Comparative Outcomes of Levetiracetam and Phenobarbital Usage in the Treatment of Neonatal Seizures: A Retrospective Analysis
by Handan Hakyemez Toptan, Nazmiye Nilgun Karadag, Sevilay Topcuoglu, Elif Ozalkaya, Emre Dincer, Hakan Cakir, Asli Okbay Gunes and Guner Karatekin
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070800 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 619
Abstract
Objectives and Aim: The primary aim of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis of the safety and efficacy of levetiracetam (LEV) and phenobarbital (PB) as first-line treatments for neonatal seizure management. This study was designed to measure and compare the incidence [...] Read more.
Objectives and Aim: The primary aim of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis of the safety and efficacy of levetiracetam (LEV) and phenobarbital (PB) as first-line treatments for neonatal seizure management. This study was designed to measure and compare the incidence of adverse effects and to determine the discharge and mortality rates associated with the use of these antiseizure medications (ASMs). Through this comparison, this research sought to provide insights to optimise care for neonates experiencing seizures. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study evaluated 104 neonates treated for seizures at Zeynep Kamil Hospital from 2015 to 2020 after excluding those on non-PB/LEV antiseizure medications. Seizures were characterised using electroencephalogram (EEG) and categorised according to aetiology and frequency. Treatment efficacy was gauged by seizure cessation, as confirmed using EEG. Adverse effects and demographic data were recorded. Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS, employing the Shapiro–Wilk, independent t-test, Mann–Whitney U test, and chi-square test, with a significance threshold of p < 0.05. Results: Overall, 104 neonates treated with first-line ASM were evaluated for efficacy; PB was administered in 68.26% of the cases, while LEV was utilised in 31.74%. The total complete response rate was 40.38%, with no significant difference between the PB and LEV groups (p = 0.309). The incidence rate ratios (IRRs) demonstrated that seizure frequency profoundly influenced treatment effectiveness, with IRRs of 2.09 for rare seizures, 3.25 for frequent seizures, and 4.01 for status epilepticus, indicating a higher treatment response rate with increasing seizure frequency. For second-line treatment, among a subset of 62 patients, PB had a slight, non-significant advantage over LEV, with an odds ratio of 1.09, suggesting a marginally better response to LEV. Adverse events were significantly more frequent in the PB group, affecting 19 of 67 neonates (28.36%), compared to only 2 of 71 neonates (2.82%) in the LEV group (p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed in the discharge rates between the two groups (PB, 67.61%; LEV, 75.76%; p = 0.674). Interestingly, the mortality rate was significantly higher in the LEV group (45.45%) than that in the PB group (22.54%; p = 0.045). Conclusion: This study underscores LEV’s superior safety profile over PB in neonatal seizure management, evidenced by a significantly lower rate of adverse events. PB seems to be more effective in the second-line treatment of neonatal seizures. Despite the lack of significant differences in the discharge rates, the higher mortality rate associated with LEV warrants further investigation. These findings advocate the cautious selection of antiepileptic drugs in neonatal care, with a preference for LEV based on its safety profile. Full article
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15 pages, 1817 KiB  
Article
A Comparison of Veterans with Problematic Opioid Use Identified through Natural Language Processing of Clinical Notes versus Using Diagnostic Codes
by Terri Elizabeth Workman, Joel Kupersmith, Phillip Ma, Christopher Spevak, Friedhelm Sandbrink, Yan Cheng and Qing Zeng-Treitler
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 799; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070799 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 538
Abstract
Opioid use disorder is known to be under-coded as a diagnosis, yet problematic opioid use can be documented in clinical notes, which are included in electronic health records. We sought to identify problematic opioid use from a full range of clinical notes and [...] Read more.
Opioid use disorder is known to be under-coded as a diagnosis, yet problematic opioid use can be documented in clinical notes, which are included in electronic health records. We sought to identify problematic opioid use from a full range of clinical notes and compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients identified as having problematic opioid use exclusively in clinical notes to patients documented through ICD opioid use disorder diagnostic codes. We developed and applied a natural language processing (NLP) tool that combines rule-based pattern analysis and a trained support vector machine to the clinical notes of a patient cohort (n = 222,371) from two Veteran Affairs service regions to identify patients with problematic opioid use. We also used a set of ICD diagnostic codes to identify patients with opioid use disorder from the same cohort. The NLP tool achieved 96.6% specificity, 90.4% precision/PPV, 88.4% sensitivity/recall, and 94.4% accuracy on unseen test data. NLP exclusively identified 57,331 patients; 6997 patients had positive ICD code identifications. Patients exclusively identified through NLP were more likely to be women. Those identified through ICD codes were more likely to be male, younger, have concurrent benzodiazepine prescriptions, more comorbidities, and more care encounters, and were less likely to be married. Patients in both these groups had substantially elevated comorbidity levels compared with patients not documented through either method as experiencing problematic opioid use. Clinicians may be reluctant to code for opioid use disorder. It is therefore incumbent on the healthcare team to search for documentation of opioid concerns within clinical notes. Full article
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21 pages, 687 KiB  
Article
Sexual Self Discrepancies, Sexual Satisfaction, and Relationship Satisfaction in a Cross-Sectional Sample of Women Who Experience Chronic Vaginal Pain during Sexual Intercourse
by Elizabeth Moore and Justin Sitron
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 798; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070798 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1088
Abstract
One out of three women may suffer from chronic vaginal pain during intercourse, a complex health issue that leads to lasting psychological, sexual, emotional, and relational difficulties even after initial relief. Women who experience this pain condition may compare their sexual selves to [...] Read more.
One out of three women may suffer from chronic vaginal pain during intercourse, a complex health issue that leads to lasting psychological, sexual, emotional, and relational difficulties even after initial relief. Women who experience this pain condition may compare their sexual selves to the societal norm of being pain-free. Comparisons that do not align with one’s actual sexual self result in sexual self-discrepancies and may cause emotional distress. Sexual self-discrepancies may hinder sexual and relationship satisfaction for women who experience chronic vaginal pain during sexual intercourse. This mixed-method study examined the sexual self-discrepancies women reported and the degree to which their sexual self-discrepancies were related to their sexual and relationship satisfaction. Results from this cross-sectional study showed that the majority of participants experienced sexual self-discrepancies and that they experienced a significant inverse correlation between sexual self-discrepancies and sexual satisfaction. In multivariate models, sex frequency was the strongest predictor of sexual satisfaction. There were no correlations between sexual self-discrepancies and relationship satisfaction. Future measurement research should examine the role of sex frequency in the experience of sexual satisfaction. Education on maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain may aid women to cope with the negative impact of pain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sexual Functioning, Sexual Satisfaction and Health)
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12 pages, 749 KiB  
Article
Impact of Workplace Bullying on Quiet Quitting in Nurses: The Mediating Effect of Coping Strategies
by Petros Galanis, Ioannis Moisoglou, Aglaia Katsiroumpa, Maria Malliarou, Irene Vraka, Parisis Gallos, Maria Kalogeropoulou and Ioanna V. Papathanasiou
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070797 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1253
Abstract
Workplace bullying is common among nurses and negatively affects several work-related variables, such as job burnout and job satisfaction. However, no study until now has examined the impact of workplace bullying on quiet quitting among nurses. Thus, our aim was to examine the [...] Read more.
Workplace bullying is common among nurses and negatively affects several work-related variables, such as job burnout and job satisfaction. However, no study until now has examined the impact of workplace bullying on quiet quitting among nurses. Thus, our aim was to examine the direct effect of workplace bullying on quiet quitting and to investigate the mediating effect of coping strategies on the relationship between workplace bullying and quiet quitting in nurses. We conducted a cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of 650 nurses in Greece. We collected our data in February 2024. We used the Negative Acts Questionnaire—Revised, the Quiet Quitting Scale, and the Brief COPE to measure workplace bullying, quiet quitting, and coping strategies, respectively. We found that workplace bullying and negative coping strategies were positive predictors of quiet quitting, while positive coping strategies were negative predictors of quiet quitting. Our mediation analysis showed that positive and negative coping strategies partially mediated the relationship between workplace bullying and quiet quitting. In particular, positive coping strategies caused competitive mediation, while negative coping strategies caused complimentary mediation. Nurses’ managers and policy makers should improve working conditions by reducing workplace bullying and strengthening positive coping strategies among nurses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nursing)
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15 pages, 1610 KiB  
Review
Effects of Telerehabilitation on Pain and Disability in Patients with Chronic Neck Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Geraldine Valenza-Peña, Andrés Calvache-Mateo, Marie Carmen Valenza, María Granados-Santiago, Julia Raya-Benítez, Irene Cabrera-Martos and Esther Díaz-Mohedo
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070796 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 730
Abstract
(1) Background: This systematic review and meta-analysis explores the effectiveness of telerehabilitation in patients suffering from chronic neck pain, specifically on pain and disability. The research delves into an area of growing significance within the realm of healthcare, aiming to understand the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This systematic review and meta-analysis explores the effectiveness of telerehabilitation in patients suffering from chronic neck pain, specifically on pain and disability. The research delves into an area of growing significance within the realm of healthcare, aiming to understand the impact of digital interventions on the rehabilitation process for individuals with prolonged neck pain. (2) Methods: The comprehensive review encompasses a wide array of studies evaluating the collective outcomes of numerous trials focused on telerehabilitation strategies. In this systematic review, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched to identify studies on telerehabilitation’s impact on pain. (3) Results: Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Using the Downs and Black quality assessment, three studies were classified as good and five as fair. The authors identify specific modalities within telerehabilitation, such as remote exercise programs and virtual consultations, that contribute significantly to positive patient outcomes. Meta-analysis indicated a significant overall effect of telerehabilitation on pain reduction (MD = −1.27; 95% CI = −2.06; −0.47; p = 0.002). These findings support telerehabilitation’s efficacy in pain management. (4) Conclusions: The synthesis of evidence presented in this systematic review and meta-analysis underscores the potential of telerehabilitation as an effective and accessible means of managing chronic neck pain, offering valuable insights for both healthcare practitioners and policymakers in advancing patient-centered care. Full article
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28 pages, 447 KiB  
Review
Tools to Guide Radiation Oncologists in the Management of DCIS
by Maria Cristina Leonardi, Maria Alessia Zerella, Matteo Lazzeroni, Nicola Fusco, Paolo Veronesi, Viviana Enrica Galimberti, Giovanni Corso, Samantha Dicuonzo, Damaris Patricia Rojas, Anna Morra, Marianna Alessandra Gerardi, Chiara Lorubbio, Mattia Zaffaroni, Maria Giulia Vincini, Roberto Orecchia, Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa and Francesca Magnoni
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070795 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 807
Abstract
Similar to invasive breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in situ is also going through a phase of changes not only from a technical but also a conceptual standpoint. From prescribing radiotherapy to everyone to personalized approaches, including radiotherapy omission, there is still a lack [...] Read more.
Similar to invasive breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in situ is also going through a phase of changes not only from a technical but also a conceptual standpoint. From prescribing radiotherapy to everyone to personalized approaches, including radiotherapy omission, there is still a lack of a comprehensive framework to guide radiation oncologists in decision making. Many pieces of the puzzle are finding their place as high-quality data mature and are disseminated, but very often, the interpretation of risk factors and the perception of risk remain very highly subjective. Sharing the therapeutic choice with patients requires effective communication for an understanding of risks and benefits, facilitating an informed decision that does not increase anxiety and concerns about prognosis. The purpose of this narrative review is to summarize the current state of knowledge to highlight the tools available to radiation oncologists for managing DCIS, with an outlook on future developments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Preventive Medicine)
10 pages, 254 KiB  
Article
Inappropriate Use of Emergency Services from the Perspective of Primary Care Underutilization in a Local Romanian Context: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Anca Maria Lăcătuș, Ioana Anisa Atudorei, Andrea Elena Neculau, Laura Mihaela Isop, Cristina Agnes Vecerdi, Liliana Rogozea and Mihai Văcaru
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 794; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070794 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 559
Abstract
Background: The underutilization of primary care services is a possible factor influencing inappropriate emergency service presentations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the proportion and characteristics of patients inappropriately accessing emergency room services from the perspective of primary care underutilization. [...] Read more.
Background: The underutilization of primary care services is a possible factor influencing inappropriate emergency service presentations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the proportion and characteristics of patients inappropriately accessing emergency room services from the perspective of primary care underutilization. Methods: This cross-sectional study included patients who visited the emergency room of a County Hospital, initially triaged with green, blue, or white codes, during a 2-week period in May 2017. Two primary care physicians performed a structured analysis to correlate the initial diagnosis in the emergency room with the final diagnosis to establish whether the patient’s medical complaints could have been resolved in primary care. Results: A total of 1269 adult patients were included in this study. In total, the medical problems of 71.7% of patients could have been resolved by a primary care physician using clinical skills, extended resources, or other ambulatory care and out-of-hours services. Conclusions: Low awareness of out-of-hours centers and a lack of resources for delivering more complex services in primary care can lead to inappropriate presentations to the emergency services. Future research on this topic needs to be conducted at the national level. Full article
13 pages, 250 KiB  
Article
The Right to Equal Health: Best Practice Priorities for Māori with Bipolar Disorder from Staff Focus Groups
by Tracy Haitana, Mau Te Rangimarie Clark, Marie Crowe, Ruth Cunningham, Richard Porter, Suzanne Pitama, Roger Mulder and Cameron Lacey
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070793 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 745
Abstract
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a serious mental health condition that is clinically complex to monitor and manage. While best practice guidelines exist, they vary internationally lacking consensus. Indigenous peoples, including Māori in New Zealand, experience higher community rates of BD. While New Zealand [...] Read more.
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a serious mental health condition that is clinically complex to monitor and manage. While best practice guidelines exist, they vary internationally lacking consensus. Indigenous peoples, including Māori in New Zealand, experience higher community rates of BD. While New Zealand practice guidelines recommend providing culturally responsive care to Māori, studies show that Māori do not receive best practice. This qualitative study aimed to share the evidence about patterns of health service use and Māori patient experiences with focus group participants involved in the design and delivery of BD services, to discuss and develop guidelines for best practice for Māori with BD and address areas of unmet need. Three focus groups were conducted with 22 participants involved in the delivery of services to Māori with BD across three sites. Willing participants were sent background information and three focus group questions framed to elicit priority solutions to improve clinical, structural and organisational features of mental health service delivery for Māori patients with BD and their whānau (family). The nominal group technique was used to synthesise responses, and then develop a prioritised list of proposed solutions. Results identified system-level changes required at the clinical, structural and organisational levels of healthcare. Findings further evidence the need for healthcare reform in New Zealand, to be responsive to Māori with BD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Healthcare Quality)
31 pages, 1131 KiB  
Systematic Review
Suicide Interventions in Spain and Japan: A Comparative Systematic Review
by Noelia Lucía Martínez-Rives, María del Pilar Martín Chaparro, Bibha Dhungel, Stuart Gilmour, Rory D. Colman and Yasuhiro Kotera
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070792 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 838
Abstract
(1) Background: This systematic review presents an overview of psychological interventions in suicide published between 2013 and 2023 in Spain and Japan, sparked by Spain’s alarming recent increase in suicide rates and the potential exemplar of Japan’s reduction efforts. (2) Methods: Following the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This systematic review presents an overview of psychological interventions in suicide published between 2013 and 2023 in Spain and Japan, sparked by Spain’s alarming recent increase in suicide rates and the potential exemplar of Japan’s reduction efforts. (2) Methods: Following the PRISMA checklist, the databases Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and PsycInfo were searched using the terms [(“suicide” OR “suicidal behavior” OR “suicidal attempt” OR “suicidal thought” OR “suicidal intention”) AND (“prevention” OR “intervention” OR “psychosocial treatment” OR “Dialectical Behavior Therapy” OR “Cognitive Therapy” OR “psychotherap*”)] AND [(“Spain” OR “Spanish”) OR (“Japan” OR “Japanese”)]. We included articles published in peer-reviewed academic journals, written in English, Spanish, and Japanese between 2013 and 2023 that presented, designed, implemented, or assessed psychological interventions focused on suicidal behavior. (3) Results: 46 studies were included, concerning prevention, treatment, and training interventions. The risk of bias was low in both Spanish and Japanese studies, despite the lack of randomization of the samples. We identified common characteristics, such as psychoeducation and coping skills. Assertive case management was only highlighted in Japan, making an emphasis on active patient involvement in his/her care plan. (4) Conclusions: The findings will help professionals to incorporate into their interventions broader, more comprehensive approaches to consider more interpersonal components. Full article
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13 pages, 602 KiB  
Article
Predictive Validity of the Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool for Older Patients in Stroke Rehabilitation
by Seungho Hong, Ji-Sook Kim and Young-Ah Choi
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 791; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070791 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1092
Abstract
The aim of this retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study was to assess the frequency of falls and evaluate the predictive validity of the Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool (JHFRAT) among patients aged ≥65 years, transferred to the rehabilitation ward of a university hospital. [...] Read more.
The aim of this retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study was to assess the frequency of falls and evaluate the predictive validity of the Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool (JHFRAT) among patients aged ≥65 years, transferred to the rehabilitation ward of a university hospital. The predictive ability was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and the optimal threshold was established using the Youden index. We analyzed the overall cohort (N = 175) with subacute stroke and the subgroup with a low unaffected handgrip strength (HGS; men: <28 kg, women: <18 kg). Overall, 135/175 patients (77.1%) had a low HGS. The fall rate was 6.9% overall and 5.9% for patients with a low HGS. The JHFRAT predictive value was higher for patients with a low HGS than that for the overall cohort, but acceptable in both. The optimal cutoff score for the overall cohort was 11 (sensitivity, 67%; specificity, 68%), whereas that for the subgroup was 12 (sensitivity, 75%; specificity: 72%). These results are expected to aid nurses working in rehabilitation wards in more effectively utilizing JHFRAT outcomes for post-stroke older patients with a low HGS and contribute to the development of more appropriate fall prevention strategies for high-risk patients in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fall Prevention and Geriatric Nursing)
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14 pages, 614 KiB  
Review
The Effect of Spacer Treatment of Infected Hip and Knee Arthroplasties on Patients’ Mental Health: A Narrative Review of the Literature
by Donato Di Gennaro, Giannantonio Coletta, Enrico Festa, Domenico De Mauro, Maria Rizzo, Luca Diana, Giovanni Balato and Massimo Mariconda
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070790 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 669
Abstract
Background: The gold standard treatment for periprosthetic joint infections is the two-stage revision that includes the spacer placement before definitive reimplantation. The management of PJI affects patients’ joint function and, subsequently, their mental health. Even though significant advances have been achieved, little to [...] Read more.
Background: The gold standard treatment for periprosthetic joint infections is the two-stage revision that includes the spacer placement before definitive reimplantation. The management of PJI affects patients’ joint function and, subsequently, their mental health. Even though significant advances have been achieved, little to no attention has been paid to the psychological implications. So, based on standardized patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), this study aimed to clarify the effect of spacer treatment of infected hip and knee arthroplasties on patients’ mental health. Methods: We performed research on the literature on PJIs in the English language using the MEDLINE database with the search strings “spacer” OR “spacers” AND “hip” OR “knee” AND “SF-12” OR “SF-36” OR “EQ-5” OR “mental” OR “depression” OR “anxiety.” The reference lists of selected articles were also hand-searched for any additional articles. Results: A total of 973 published papers were extracted, and 9 papers were finally included. A total of 384 patients who underwent spacer placement for PJI were identified. Of these 384 patients, 54% were female. The mean age ranged from 62 to 78.2 years. Of the11 papers identified for this review, 4 analyzed only hip spacers, including 119 patients; 4 only knee spacers, evaluating 153 patients; while a single study included 112 patients for both joints. Conclusions: Patients with the spacer are living in a state of mental upset, albeit better than the preoperative state. Clinical improvement with the review is not assured. The alteration of mental state turns out not to be transient for all the patients. Full article
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20 pages, 324 KiB  
Article
Impact of Home-Based Work during the COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental and Physical Health in a German Population-Based Sample
by Franziska Emmerich, Julia Junghans, Markus Zenger, Elmar Brähler, Yve Stöbel-Richter, Lisa Irmscher, Ernst Peter Richter and Hendrik Berth
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 789; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070789 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 920
Abstract
Background: The COVID-19 outbreak necessitated physical distancing, as part of secondary prevention, at a personal and professional level. Working from home (WFH) became increasingly important. In this study, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions on physical and mental health is investigated, [...] Read more.
Background: The COVID-19 outbreak necessitated physical distancing, as part of secondary prevention, at a personal and professional level. Working from home (WFH) became increasingly important. In this study, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions on physical and mental health is investigated, compared with pre-pandemic data, and with employees who WFH and are on-site. Methods: Data from the German Saxon longitudinal study population were used. Attitudes towards WFH as well as mental and physical health assessments during the COVID-19 pandemic were examined. Comparisons were made with corresponding pre-pandemic scores and between employees WFH and on-site in 2022. Results: In total, 319 participants with equal gender distribution were included. Of those, 86 worked from home stating better organizability of their work, more time for partnership, less stress, and greater work satisfaction. Compared to pre-pandemic data, the D-score, PHQ-4, G-Score, and PHQ-SSS-8 showed a significant increase. No difference in physical or mental health between employees WFH and on-site was observed. Conclusion: In general, COVID-19 restrictions had a negative impact on mental and physical health. Although WFH is well accepted, it did not show significant health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Coronaviruses (CoV) and COVID-19 Pandemic)
15 pages, 929 KiB  
Review
Potential Applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Managing Polypharmacy in Saudi Arabia: A Narrative Review
by Safaa M. Alsanosi and Sandosh Padmanabhan
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070788 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1145
Abstract
Prescribing medications is a fundamental practice in the management of illnesses that necessitates in-depth knowledge of clinical pharmacology. Polypharmacy, or the concurrent use of multiple medications by individuals with complex health conditions, poses significant challenges, including an increased risk of drug interactions and [...] Read more.
Prescribing medications is a fundamental practice in the management of illnesses that necessitates in-depth knowledge of clinical pharmacology. Polypharmacy, or the concurrent use of multiple medications by individuals with complex health conditions, poses significant challenges, including an increased risk of drug interactions and adverse reactions. The Saudi Vision 2030 prioritises enhancing healthcare quality and safety, including addressing polypharmacy. Artificial intelligence (AI) offers promising tools to optimise medication plans, predict adverse drug reactions and ensure drug safety. This review explores AI’s potential to revolutionise polypharmacy management in Saudi Arabia, highlighting practical applications, challenges and the path forward for the integration of AI solutions into healthcare practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Artificial Intelligence in Medicine)
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11 pages, 604 KiB  
Article
FTO rs9939609: T>A Variant and Physical Inactivity as Important Risk Factors for Class III Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Erika Martínez-López, Mariana Perez-Robles, Joel Torres-Vanegas, Sissi Godinez-Mora, Iris Monserrat Llamas-Covarrubias and Wendy Campos-Perez
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 787; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070787 - 4 Apr 2024
Viewed by 833
Abstract
Background: The prevalence of obesity has been increasing worldwide. It has been reported that physiological and environmental factors such as diet, culture, physical activity, and genetics are the principal factors related to obesity. The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gen variant [...] Read more.
Background: The prevalence of obesity has been increasing worldwide. It has been reported that physiological and environmental factors such as diet, culture, physical activity, and genetics are the principal factors related to obesity. The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gen variant (rs9939609: T>A) has been associated with class III obesity. The A variant has been correlated with anthropometric and metabolic alterations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the association of the FTO rs9939609: T>A variant and environmental factors with clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical variables in subjects with class III obesity. Results: The A variant frequency was higher in the class III obesity group compared with the normal weight group (44% vs. 25%, p < 0.001). Subjects with the AA genotype had a higher body mass index (BMI) than those with the AT genotype (35.46 kg/m2 (31–39.8) vs. 26.91 kg/m2 (23.7–30), p = 0.005). Women with the AA genotype showed higher waist circumferences than the AT group (101.07 cm (90.9–111.1) vs. 85.45 cm (77–93.8) p = 0.047). The FTO A variant increases the risk by 3.54 times and physical inactivity increases the risk by 6.37 times for class III obesity. Conclusions: Our results suggest that among the studied variables, those most related to class III obesity were the FTO risk genotype (A allele) and physical inactivity. Full article
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21 pages, 802 KiB  
Article
Something Happened with the Way We Work: Evaluating the Implementation of the Reducing Coercion in Norway (ReCoN) Intervention in Primary Mental Health Care
by Tonje Lossius Husum, Irene Wormdahl, Solveig H. H. Kjus, Trond Hatling and Jorun Rugkåsa
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070786 - 4 Apr 2024
Viewed by 929
Abstract
Background: Current policies to reduce the use of involuntary admissions are largely oriented towards specialist mental health care and have had limited success. We co-created, with stakeholders in five Norwegian municipalities, the ‘Reducing Coercion in Norway’ (ReCoN) intervention that aims to reduce involuntary [...] Read more.
Background: Current policies to reduce the use of involuntary admissions are largely oriented towards specialist mental health care and have had limited success. We co-created, with stakeholders in five Norwegian municipalities, the ‘Reducing Coercion in Norway’ (ReCoN) intervention that aims to reduce involuntary admissions by improving the way in which primary mental health services work and collaborate. The intervention was implemented in five municipalities and is being tested in a cluster randomized control trial, which is yet to be published. The present study evaluates the implementation process in the five intervention municipalities. To assess how the intervention was executed, we report on how its different elements were implemented, and what helped or hindered implementation. Methods: We assessed the process using qualitative methods. Data included detailed notes from quarterly progress interviews with (i) intervention coordinators and representatives from (ii) user organisations and (iii) carer organisations. Finally, an end-of-intervention evaluation seminar included participants from across the sites. Results: The majority of intervention actions were implemented. We believe this was enabled by the co-creating process, which ensured ownership and a good fit for the local setting. The analysis of facilitators and barriers showed a high degree of interconnectedness between different parts of the intervention so that success (or lack thereof) in one area affected the success in others. Future implementation should pay attention to enhanced planning and training, clarify the role and contribution of service user and carer involvement, and pay close attention to the need for implementation support and whether this should be external or internal to services. Conclusions: It is feasible to implement a complex intervention designed to reduce the use of involuntary admissions in general support services, such as the Norwegian primary mental health services. This could have implications for national and international policy aimed at reducing the use of involuntary care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Moving Away from Coercion in Mental Health Care)
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12 pages, 256 KiB  
Article
Actual Scope of Nursing Practice in Saudi Ministry of Health Hospitals
by Ahmed A. Hamadi, Ahmad E. Aboshaiqah and Naif H. Alanazi
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070785 - 4 Apr 2024
Viewed by 787
Abstract
Background: Articulating a clear scope of practice for all nursing categories is essential for improving patient safety, quality of care, and nurse retention. However, this is not the case in many countries, including Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to analyze the actual scope [...] Read more.
Background: Articulating a clear scope of practice for all nursing categories is essential for improving patient safety, quality of care, and nurse retention. However, this is not the case in many countries, including Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to analyze the actual scope of practice for nursing staff in Saudi Ministry of Health hospitals. Methods: The study used a cross-sectional exploratory design. The sampling method used in the study was the quota sampling technique. The scale utilized in this study was the Actual Scope of Practice (ASCOP) scale. Data were collected in March 2021 through an electronic form questionnaire completed by 286 nurses in two hospitals in Al-Hasa province in Saudi Arabia. Results: The overall mean score for ASCOP was 4.64 out of 6. When participants were grouped according to select characteristics (various nursing staff categories, educational levels, years of experience, nationality, gender, and type of work setting), the results revealed no statistically significant differences in overall ASCOP mean scores, except for gender and nationality. Conclusions: The overall mean scores of nursing activities performed in practice do not significantly differ across nurses with different professional categories (health assistant, nursing technician, nursing specialist, and senior nursing specialist), indicating no clear scope of practice for each nursing category, in turn leading to role overlap among them in practice. The current study’s findings can guide decision-makers to develop a clear scope of practice for nurses. The findings should also urge the decision-makers to reevaluate the usefulness of having multiple professional categories of nurses who are allowed to carry out almost the same job duties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nursing)
11 pages, 1713 KiB  
Article
Exploring Physical Activity Levels in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease—A Preliminary Study
by Saori Kakita, Takatomo Watanabe, Junya Yamagishi, Chiaki Tanaka, Daichi Watanabe and Hiroyuki Okura
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070784 - 3 Apr 2024
Viewed by 661
Abstract
Increased physical activity may prevent disease onset and severity in individuals with cardiovascular disease. However, studies evaluating physical activity in people with cardiovascular disease are limited. This prospective observational study aimed to objectively assess the level of physical activity in patients with cardiovascular [...] Read more.
Increased physical activity may prevent disease onset and severity in individuals with cardiovascular disease. However, studies evaluating physical activity in people with cardiovascular disease are limited. This prospective observational study aimed to objectively assess the level of physical activity in patients with cardiovascular disease and determine the actual extent of physical activity in their daily lives. Participants aged 20 years or older with cardiovascular disease at a cardiology clinic were included. Physical activity was measured using an activity meter with a three-axis acceleration sensor. Overall, 58 patients were included in the study. Household activities were found to be more frequent sources of physical activity. The step count was related to age and housework, while total physical activity and household activity were related to age and work. Locomotive activity was related to sex and housework. Total physical and household activities tended to decrease with age. These findings indicate the influence of work and household chores on physical activity and suggest that physical activity may be underestimated if household activity is not also assessed. These fundamental findings may provide clinical evidence to underpin physical activity for patients with cardiovascular disease. Full article
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11 pages, 685 KiB  
Article
The Reliability of Carotid Artery Doppler Ultrasonography Indices in Predicting Fluid Responsiveness during Surgery for Geriatric Patients: A Prospective, Observational Study
by Beliz Bilgili, Ayten Saracoglu, Kemal T. Saracoglu, Pawel Ratajczyk and Alper Kararmaz
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070783 - 3 Apr 2024
Viewed by 731
Abstract
Background: The reliability of determining fluid responsiveness during surgery in geriatric patients is challenging. Our primary outcome was to determine the reliability of Corrected Flow Time (FTc) in predicting fluid responsiveness. Methods: Elderly patients undergoing major surgery under general anesthesia were included. Measurements [...] Read more.
Background: The reliability of determining fluid responsiveness during surgery in geriatric patients is challenging. Our primary outcome was to determine the reliability of Corrected Flow Time (FTc) in predicting fluid responsiveness. Methods: Elderly patients undergoing major surgery under general anesthesia were included. Measurements of common carotid artery diameter, velocity time integral, and systolic flow time (FT) were performed before and after a fluid challenge. FTc and carotid blood flow (CBF) were subsequently calculated. Results: The median change in carotid diameter was significantly higher in the fluid-responder (R) compared to the non-responder (NR) (6.51% vs. 0.65%, p = 0.049). The median change in CBF was notably higher in R compared to NR (30.04% vs. 9.72%, p = 0.024). Prior to the fluid challenge, systolic FT was significantly shorter in R than NR (285 ms vs. 315 ms, p = 0.027), but after the fluid challenge, these measurements became comparable among the groups. The change in systolic FT was higher in R (15.38% vs. 7.49%, p = 0.027). FTc and the change in FTc exhibited similarities among the groups at all study time points. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.682 (95% CI: 0.509–0.855, p = 0.039) for carotid diameter, 0.710 (95% CI: 0.547–0.872, p = 0.011) for CBF, 0.706 (95% CI: 0.540–0.872, p = 0.015) for systolic FT, and 0.580 (95% CI = 0.389–0.770, p = 0.413) for FTc. Conclusions: In geriatric patients, potential endothelial changes in the carotid artery may influence the dynamic markers of fluid responsiveness. Despite the demonstrated effectiveness of FTc in predicting fluid responsiveness in the general population, this study underscores the limited reliability of carotid Doppler ultrasonography indices for prediction in a geriatric patient population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine)
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13 pages, 1075 KiB  
Article
Economic Evaluation of the Thai Diagnostic Autism Scale for Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis in Children Aged 1–5 Years Old
by Duangkamol Tangviriyapaiboon, Unchalee Permsuwan, Chosita Pavasuthipaisit, Athithan Sriminipun and Piyameth Dilokthornsakul
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070782 - 3 Apr 2024
Viewed by 702
Abstract
The Thai Diagnostic Autism Scale (TDAS) was developed for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis in Thai children aged 1–5 years. Previous studies have indicated its good performance; however, additional health resources and healthcare providers are necessary for evaluation. Therefore, this study aimed to [...] Read more.
The Thai Diagnostic Autism Scale (TDAS) was developed for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis in Thai children aged 1–5 years. Previous studies have indicated its good performance; however, additional health resources and healthcare providers are necessary for evaluation. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of TDAS compared to clinical diagnosis (ClinDx) for ASD diagnosis in Thai children aged 1–5 years from a societal perspective. The analysis employed a hybrid model consisting of a decision tree model for a diagnostic phase with a state transition model for a follow-up phase. A literature review was conducted to determine TDAS performance and the relative risk of death in patients with ASD. Direct medical costs were assessed through a retrospective medical records review, and a cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine direct nonmedical costs, ASD severities, and utility values. The cost of TDAS was derived from a healthcare provider interview (n = 10). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) compared the total lifetime cost and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) between TDAS and ClinDx. We found that TDAS could improve QALY by 1.96 but increased total lifetime cost by 5577 USD, resulting in an ICER of 2852 USD/QALY. Sensitivity analysis indicated an 81.16% chance that TDAS is cost-effective. The probabilities of different ASD severities were key influencing factors of the findings. In conclusion, TDAS is the cost-effective option for ASD diagnosis in Thai children aged 1–5 years compared to ClinDx, despite some uncertainties around inputs. Further monitoring and evaluation are warranted if TDAS is to be implemented nationwide. Full article
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22 pages, 2030 KiB  
Review
Predicting Male Infertility Using Artificial Neural Networks: A Review of the Literature
by Vivian Schmeis Arroyo, Marco Iosa, Gabriella Antonucci and Daniela De Bartolo
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070781 - 3 Apr 2024
Viewed by 959
Abstract
Male infertility is a relevant public health problem, but there is no systematic review of the different machine learning (ML) models and their accuracy so far. The present review aims to comprehensively investigate the use of ML algorithms in predicting male infertility, thus [...] Read more.
Male infertility is a relevant public health problem, but there is no systematic review of the different machine learning (ML) models and their accuracy so far. The present review aims to comprehensively investigate the use of ML algorithms in predicting male infertility, thus reporting the accuracy of the used models in the prediction of male infertility as a primary outcome. Particular attention will be paid to the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs). A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct between 15 July and 23 October 2023, conducted under the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We performed a quality assessment of the included studies using the recommended tools suggested for the type of study design adopted. We also made a screening of the Risk of Bias (RoB) associated with the included studies. Thus, 43 relevant publications were included in this review, for a total of 40 different ML models detected. The studies included reported a good quality, even if RoB was not always good for all the types of studies. The included studies reported a median accuracy of 88% in predicting male infertility using ML models. We found only seven studies using ANN models for male infertility prediction, reporting a median accuracy of 84%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application Prospect of Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare)
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9 pages, 219 KiB  
Article
“I’m Torn”: Qualitative Analysis of Dental Practitioner-Perceived Barriers, Facilitators, and Solutions to HPV Vaccine Promotion
by Meghan M. JaKa, Maren S. G. Henderson, Amanda D. Gillesby, Laura J. Zibley, Sarah M. Basile, Bryan S. Michalowicz, Donald Worley, Elyse O. Kharbanda, Steve E. Asche, Patricia L. Mabry and Brad D. Rindal
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070780 - 3 Apr 2024
Viewed by 877
Abstract
The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine can prevent HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers. Dental practitioners are uniquely positioned to promote HPV vaccines during routine dental care but experience barriers to doing so. Qualitative interviews were conducted with dental practitioners to understand barriers and inform intervention strategies [...] Read more.
The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine can prevent HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers. Dental practitioners are uniquely positioned to promote HPV vaccines during routine dental care but experience barriers to doing so. Qualitative interviews were conducted with dental practitioners to understand barriers and inform intervention strategies to promote HPV vaccines. Dental practitioners were invited to participate in phone interviews about knowledge, self-efficacy, and the fear of negative consequences related to HPV vaccine promotion as well as feedback on potential interventions to address these barriers. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using rapid qualitative analysis with a sort-and-sift matrix approach. Interviews were completed with 11 practitioners from six dental clinics (avg. 31 min). Though most thought HPV vaccination was important, they lacked detailed knowledge about when and to whom the vaccine should be recommended. This led to a hypothesized need for discussions of sexual history, feelings of limited self-efficacy to make the recommendation, and fear of patient concerns. Still, practitioners were supportive of additional training opportunities and provided input into specific interventions. The nuance of how these barriers were described by practitioners, as well as the possible solutions they identified, will help shape future interventions supporting HPV vaccine promotion in dental care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Approaches to HPV Vaccination Promotion)
12 pages, 270 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Oral Health among ADHD-Affected and Non-ADHD Children in Gran Canaria
by Roshan Melwani-Sadhwani, Eva Ruth Alonso-Agustín, Audrey Sagols-Ruiz and Ana Isabel Contreras-Madrid
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070779 - 3 Apr 2024
Viewed by 785
Abstract
A study in Gran Canaria assessed the oral health of 53 children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 106 without ADHD, aged 6 to 16 years. Clinical data on dental caries, conservative treatments, and periodontal health were recorded. The main objective [...] Read more.
A study in Gran Canaria assessed the oral health of 53 children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 106 without ADHD, aged 6 to 16 years. Clinical data on dental caries, conservative treatments, and periodontal health were recorded. The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of dental caries in children with ADHD and how their habits and behaviors contribute to their oral health status. The results showed that children with ADHD had a significant increase in dental caries, conservative treatments, and gingival bleeding. A connection with diet was found, though it did not have a negative impact. No increase in periodontal index was observed, and no significant relationship with diet, family factors, or breastfeeding was found. The evidence suggests that children with ADHD should undergo frequent dental check-ups to monitor oral health and receive education on the importance of the quality and frequency of tooth brushing. These findings highlight the need to address oral health in children with ADHD and the necessity for adequate dental care in this group. Full article
12 pages, 430 KiB  
Article
The Effectiveness of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program in Improving Patients’ Self-Efficacy and Health-Related Behaviors: A Quasi-Experimental Study
by Ali Kerari, Ghareeb Bahari, Kholoud Alharbi and Latifah Alenazi
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12070778 - 3 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1060
Abstract
The Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) is a valuable educational resource for supporting patients’ self-management behaviors. However, no evidence supporting its effectiveness in the Saudi Arabian population exists. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the 6-month CDSMP in individuals [...] Read more.
The Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) is a valuable educational resource for supporting patients’ self-management behaviors. However, no evidence supporting its effectiveness in the Saudi Arabian population exists. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the 6-month CDSMP in individuals with chronic conditions in Saudi Arabia within a primary care context. A quasi-experimental design was conducted in 110 adults living with ≥1 chronic disease in Saudi Arabia. The patients in the experimental group (n = 45) participated in a six-session CDSMP, whereas those in the control group (n = 65) continued their usual care. Baseline and 6-month assessments were conducted using relevant questionnaires to assess outcome measures. Analysis of covariance revealed that the participants who underwent the CDSMP had significantly higher self-efficacy levels in managing their conditions (F = 9.80, p < 0.01) and a greater tendency to adopt healthy behaviors to successfully manage their chronic illnesses (F = 11.17, p < 0.01). The participants who underwent the CDSMP also showed significant improvements in all health-related outcomes compared with those in the control group (p < 0.01). These findings indicated that the program had a positive effectiveness in self-efficacy, self-management behaviors, and health-related outcomes among adults with chronic diseases in Saudi Arabia. The CDSMP may be integrated into primary care settings to help patients successfully manage their chronic conditions. Full article
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