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Aerospace, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2015) – 5 articles , Pages 555-672

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Open AccessArticle
C0 Layerwise Model with Fixed Degrees of Freedom and Variable In- and Out-of-Plane Kinematics by Strain Energy Updating Technique
Aerospace 2015, 2(4), 637-672; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace2040637 - 17 Nov 2015
Viewed by 2992
Abstract
Physically based zigzag models have the merit of giving accurate stress predictions for laminates and sandwiches keeping fixed the functional degrees of freedom, though at the expense of the introduction of their derivatives. In the present paper, a technique that enables deleting these [...] Read more.
Physically based zigzag models have the merit of giving accurate stress predictions for laminates and sandwiches keeping fixed the functional degrees of freedom, though at the expense of the introduction of their derivatives. In the present paper, a technique that enables deleting these derivatives is developed. The objective is finding a priori corrections of displacements, which make the energy of the model with all the derivatives neglected equivalent to that of its initial counterpart model containing all the derivatives. Numerical applications show that this technique can obtain accurate results, even for strongly asymmetrical lay-ups, keeping low the computational cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Aerospace)
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Open AccessArticle
Acoustic Radiation by 3D Vortex Rings in Air
Aerospace 2015, 2(4), 627-636; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace2040627 - 06 Nov 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3099
Abstract
Acoustic radiation emitted by three-dimensional (3D) vortex rings in air has been investigated on the basis of the unsteady Navier–Stokes equations. Power series expansions of the unknown functions with respect to the initial vorticity which is supposed to be small are used. In [...] Read more.
Acoustic radiation emitted by three-dimensional (3D) vortex rings in air has been investigated on the basis of the unsteady Navier–Stokes equations. Power series expansions of the unknown functions with respect to the initial vorticity which is supposed to be small are used. In such a manner the system of the Navier–Stokes equations is reduced to a parabolic system with constant coefficients at high derivatives. The initial value problem is as follows. The vorticity is defined inside a toroid at t = 0. Other gas parameters are assumed to be constant throughout the whole space at t = 0. The solution is expressed by multiple integrals which are evaluated with the aid of the Korobov grids. Density oscillations are analyzed. The results show that the frequency band depends on the initial size of the vortex ring and its helicity. The presented data may be applied to the study of a flow in a wake region behind an aerodynamic body. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Aeroacoustics)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Variable Stiffness Laminates and Sandwiches Undergoing Impulsive Dynamic Loading
Aerospace 2015, 2(4), 602-626; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace2040602 - 23 Oct 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3293
Abstract
This paper, which deals with variable stiffness composites, is aimed at showing the effects of optimization on the response characteristics and stress fields of these materials. A new optimization technique that has recently been developed is used to find spatially variable distributions of [...] Read more.
This paper, which deals with variable stiffness composites, is aimed at showing the effects of optimization on the response characteristics and stress fields of these materials. A new optimization technique that has recently been developed is used to find spatially variable distributions of stiffness properties at any point, which minimize the interlaminar stresses without significant stiffness loss. After solving the Euler–Lagrange equations obtained by the strain energy extremization with varying the stiffness properties, curvilinear paths of fibres are found in closed form that modify natural frequencies, improve dynamic response and aid in recovery of critical interlaminar stresses. In the current version of the optimization technique, a more realistic description of the optimized shear coefficients is provided in order to accurately describe local effects. As a structural model, a zig-zag model with variable through-the-thickness kinematics is adopted, which is able to adapt itself to variations in solutions, thus providing accurate results from constitutive equations. This model is adopted because an accurate description of strain energy is mandatory for an effective application of the optimization procedure proposed. The numerical results show that the optimization procedure effectively recovers the stress concentrations while simultaneously improving the dynamic response of laminates and sandwiches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
East–West GEO Satellite Station-Keeping with Degraded Thruster Response
Aerospace 2015, 2(4), 581-601; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace2040581 - 29 Sep 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4834
Abstract
The higher harmonic terms of Earth’s gravitational potential slowly modify the nominal longitude of geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) satellites, while the third-body presence (Moon and Sun) mainly affects their latitude. For this reason, GEO satellites periodically need to perform station-keeping maneuvers, namely, east–west [...] Read more.
The higher harmonic terms of Earth’s gravitational potential slowly modify the nominal longitude of geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) satellites, while the third-body presence (Moon and Sun) mainly affects their latitude. For this reason, GEO satellites periodically need to perform station-keeping maneuvers, namely, east–west and north–south maneuvers to compensate for longitudinal and latitudinal variations, respectively. During the operational lifetime of GEO satellites, the thrusters’ response when commanded to perform these maneuvers slowly departs from the original nominal impulsive behavior. This paper addresses the practical problem of how to perform reliable east–west station-keeping maneuvers when thruster response is degraded. The need for contingency intervention from ground-based satellite operators is reduced by breaking apart the scheduled automatic station-keeping maneuvers into smaller maneuvers. Orbital alignment and attitude are tracked on-board during and in between sub-maneuvers, and any off nominal variations are corrected for with subsequent maneuvers. These corrections are particularly important near the end of the lifetime of GEO satellites, where thruster response is farthest from nominal performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Aerospace)
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Open AccessArticle
CFD Study of an Annular-Ducted Fan Lift System for VTOL Aircraft
Aerospace 2015, 2(4), 555-580; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace2040555 - 29 Sep 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 8456
Abstract
The present study aimed at assessing a novel annular-ducted fan lift system for VTOL aircraft through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The power and lift efficiency of the lift fan system in hover mode, the lift and drag in transition mode, the drag [...] Read more.
The present study aimed at assessing a novel annular-ducted fan lift system for VTOL aircraft through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The power and lift efficiency of the lift fan system in hover mode, the lift and drag in transition mode, the drag and flight speed of the aircraft in cruise mode and the pneumatic coupling of the tip turbine and jet exhaust were studied. The results show that the annular-ducted fan lift system can have higher lift efficiency compared to the rotor of the Apache helicopter; the smooth transition from vertical takeoff to cruise flight needs some extra forward thrust to overcome a low peak of drag; the aircraft with the lift fan system enclosed during cruise flight theoretically may fly faster than helicopters and tiltrotors based on aerodynamic drag prediction, due to the elimination of rotor drag and compressibility effects on the rotor blade tips; and pneumatic coupling of the tip turbine and jet exhaust of a 300 m/s velocity can provide enough moment to spin the lift fan. The CFD results provide insight for future experimental study of the annular-ducted lift fan VTOL aircraft. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Aerospace)
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