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Reactive Carbonyl Species: A Missing Link in ROS Signaling

Science Research Center, Organization of Research Initiatives, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8511, Japan
Graduate School of Science and Technology for Innovation, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8511, Japan
Department of Horticulture, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur 1706, Bangladesh
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(10), 391;
Received: 28 August 2019 / Revised: 26 September 2019 / Accepted: 27 September 2019 / Published: 30 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ROS Responses in Plants)
As reactive oxygen species (ROS) play critical roles in plants to determine cell fate in various physiological situations, there is keen interest in the biochemical processes of ROS signal transmission. Reactive carbonyl species (RCS), the α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones produced from lipid peroxides, due to their chemical property to covalently modify protein, can mediate ROS signals to proteins. Comprehensive carbonyl analysis in plants has revealed that more than a dozen different RCS, e.g., acrolein, 4-hydroxy-(E)-2-nonenal and malondialdehyde, are produced from various membranes, and some of them increase and modify proteins in response to oxidative stimuli. At early stages of response, specific subsets of proteins are selectively modified with RCS. The involvement of RCS in ROS signaling can be judged on three criteria: (1) A stimulus to increase the ROS level in plants leads to the enhancement of RCS levels. (2) Suppression of the increase of RCS by scavenging enzymes or chemicals diminishes the ROS-induced response. (3) Addition of RCS to plants evokes responses similar to those induced by ROS. On these criteria, the RCS action as damaging/signaling agents has been demonstrated for root injury, programmed cell death, senescence of siliques, stomata response to abscisic acid, and root response to auxin. RCS thus act as damage/signal mediators downstream of ROS in a variety of physiological situations. A current picture and perspectives of RCS research are presented in this article. View Full-Text
Keywords: abscisic acid; acrolein; auxin; lipid peroxide; oxidative stress; oxylipin; RCS; reactive electrophile species (RES); redox signal; ROS abscisic acid; acrolein; auxin; lipid peroxide; oxidative stress; oxylipin; RCS; reactive electrophile species (RES); redox signal; ROS
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Mano, J.; Biswas, M.S.; Sugimoto, K. Reactive Carbonyl Species: A Missing Link in ROS Signaling. Plants 2019, 8, 391.

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