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J. Dev. Biol., Volume 7, Issue 1 (March 2019)

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Open AccessReview
Regulation of Actin Dynamics in the C. elegans Somatic Gonad
J. Dev. Biol. 2019, 7(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb7010006
Received: 17 February 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
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Abstract
The reproductive system of the hermaphroditic nematode C. elegans consists of a series of contractile cell types—including the gonadal sheath cells, the spermathecal cells and the spermatheca–uterine valve—that contract in a coordinated manner to regulate oocyte entry and exit of the fertilized embryo [...] Read more.
The reproductive system of the hermaphroditic nematode C. elegans consists of a series of contractile cell types—including the gonadal sheath cells, the spermathecal cells and the spermatheca–uterine valve—that contract in a coordinated manner to regulate oocyte entry and exit of the fertilized embryo into the uterus. Contraction is driven by acto-myosin contraction and relies on the development and maintenance of specialized acto-myosin networks in each cell type. Study of this system has revealed insights into the regulation of acto-myosin network assembly and contractility in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Caenorhabditis elegans - A Developmental Genetic Model System)
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Open AccessArticle
Distinct Activities of Gli1 and Gli2 in the Absence of Ift88 and the Primary Cilia
J. Dev. Biol. 2019, 7(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb7010005
Received: 2 November 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 16 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
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Abstract
The primary cilia play essential roles in Hh-dependent Gli2 activation and Gli3 proteolytic processing in mammals. However, the roles of the cilia in Gli1 activation remain unresolved due to the loss of Gli1 transcription in cilia mutant embryos, and the inability to address [...] Read more.
The primary cilia play essential roles in Hh-dependent Gli2 activation and Gli3 proteolytic processing in mammals. However, the roles of the cilia in Gli1 activation remain unresolved due to the loss of Gli1 transcription in cilia mutant embryos, and the inability to address this question by overexpression in cultured cells. Here, we address the roles of the cilia in Gli1 activation by expressing Gli1 from the Gli2 locus in mouse embryos. We find that the maximal activation of Gli1 depends on the cilia, but partial activation of Gli1 by Smo-mediated Hh signaling exists in the absence of the cilia. Combined with reduced Gli3 repressors, this partial activation of Gli1 leads to dorsal expansion of V3 interneuron and motor neuron domains in the absence of the cilia. Moreover, expressing Gli1 from the Gli2 locus in the presence of reduced Sufu has no recognizable impact on neural tube patterning, suggesting an imbalance between the dosages of Gli and Sufu does not explain the extra Gli1 activity. Finally, a non-ciliary Gli2 variant present at a higher level than Gli1 when expressed from the Gli2 locus fails to activate Hh pathway ectopically in the absence of the cilia, suggesting that increased protein level is unlikely the major factor underlying the ectopic activation of Hh signaling by Gli1 in the absence of the cilia. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Hedgehog Signaling in Embryogenesis)
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Open AccessReview
The Forgotten Skeletogenic Condensations: A Comparison of Early Skeletal Development Amongst Vertebrates
J. Dev. Biol. 2019, 7(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb7010004
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 24 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
The development of a skeletogenic condensation is perhaps the most critical yet considerably overlooked stage of skeletogenesis. Described in this comprehensive review are the mechanisms that facilitate skeletogenic condensation formation, growth, and maintenance to allow for overt differentiation into a skeletal element. This [...] Read more.
The development of a skeletogenic condensation is perhaps the most critical yet considerably overlooked stage of skeletogenesis. Described in this comprehensive review are the mechanisms that facilitate skeletogenic condensation formation, growth, and maintenance to allow for overt differentiation into a skeletal element. This review discusses the current knowledge of gene regulation and characterization of skeletogenic condensations in the chicken, mouse, zebrafish, and other developmental models. We limited our scope to condensations that give rise to the bones and cartilages of the vertebrate skeleton, with a particular focus on craniofacial and limb bud regions. While many of the skeletogenic processes are similar among vertebrate lineages, differences are apparent in the site and timing of the initial epithelial–mesenchymal interactions as well as in whether the condensation has an osteogenic or chondrogenic fate, both within and among species. Further comparative studies are needed to clarify and broaden the existing knowledge of this intricate phenomenon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skeletal Development)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Crosstalk of Intercellular Signaling Pathways in the Generation of Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons In Vivo and from Stem Cells
J. Dev. Biol. 2019, 7(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb7010003
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Dopamine-synthesizing neurons located in the mammalian ventral midbrain are at the center stage of biomedical research due to their involvement in severe human neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, most prominently Parkinson’s Disease (PD). The induction of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons depends on two important [...] Read more.
Dopamine-synthesizing neurons located in the mammalian ventral midbrain are at the center stage of biomedical research due to their involvement in severe human neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, most prominently Parkinson’s Disease (PD). The induction of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons depends on two important signaling centers of the mammalian embryo: the ventral midline or floor plate (FP) of the neural tube, and the isthmic organizer (IsO) at the mid-/hindbrain boundary (MHB). Cells located within and close to the FP secrete sonic hedgehog (SHH), and members of the wingless-type MMTV integration site family (WNT1/5A), as well as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family. The IsO cells secrete WNT1 and the fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8). Accordingly, the FGF8, SHH, WNT, and BMP signaling pathways play crucial roles during the development of the mDA neurons in the mammalian embryo. Moreover, these morphogens are essential for the generation of stem cell-derived mDA neurons, which are critical for the modeling, drug screening, and cell replacement therapy of PD. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the functions and crosstalk of these signaling pathways in mammalian mDA neuron development in vivo and their applications in stem cell-based paradigms for the efficient derivation of these neurons in vitro. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Journal of Developmental Biology in 2018
J. Dev. Biol. 2019, 7(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb7010002
Received: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
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Abstract
Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Chromatin Remodeler LET-418/Mi2 is Required Cell Non-Autonomously for the Post-Embryonic Development of Caenorhabditis elegans
J. Dev. Biol. 2019, 7(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb7010001
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 24 December 2018
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Abstract
Chromatin condition is crucial for the cells to respond to their environment. In C. elegans, post-embryonic development is accompanied by the exit of progenitor cells from quiescence in response to food. The chromatin protein LET-418/Mi2 is required for this transition in development [...] Read more.
Chromatin condition is crucial for the cells to respond to their environment. In C. elegans, post-embryonic development is accompanied by the exit of progenitor cells from quiescence in response to food. The chromatin protein LET-418/Mi2 is required for this transition in development indicating that proper chromatin structure in cells of the freshly hatched larvae is important to respond to food. However, the identity of the tissue or cells where LET-418/Mi2 is required, as well as the developmental signals that it is modulating have not been elucidated. By restoring the activity of LET-418/Mi2 in specific tissues, we demonstrate that its activity in the intestine and the hypodermis is able to promote in a cell non-autonomous manner the exit of blast cells from quiescence and further development. Furthermore, we identify the IIS (insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling) pathway to be one of the signaling pathways that is conveying LET-418/Mi2 cell non-autonomous effect on development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Caenorhabditis elegans - A Developmental Genetic Model System)
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J. Dev. Biol. EISSN 2221-3759 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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