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The Forgotten Skeletogenic Condensations: A Comparison of Early Skeletal Development Amongst Vertebrates

Department of Biology, Mount Saint Vincent University, 166 Bedford Highway, Halifax, NS B3M 2J6, Canada
Department of Medical Neuroscience, Dalhousie University, 5850 College Street, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Dev. Biol. 2019, 7(1), 4;
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 24 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skeletal Development)
PDF [758 KB, uploaded 25 February 2019]


The development of a skeletogenic condensation is perhaps the most critical yet considerably overlooked stage of skeletogenesis. Described in this comprehensive review are the mechanisms that facilitate skeletogenic condensation formation, growth, and maintenance to allow for overt differentiation into a skeletal element. This review discusses the current knowledge of gene regulation and characterization of skeletogenic condensations in the chicken, mouse, zebrafish, and other developmental models. We limited our scope to condensations that give rise to the bones and cartilages of the vertebrate skeleton, with a particular focus on craniofacial and limb bud regions. While many of the skeletogenic processes are similar among vertebrate lineages, differences are apparent in the site and timing of the initial epithelial–mesenchymal interactions as well as in whether the condensation has an osteogenic or chondrogenic fate, both within and among species. Further comparative studies are needed to clarify and broaden the existing knowledge of this intricate phenomenon. View Full-Text
Keywords: epithelial–mesenchymal interaction; condensation; bone; cartilage; skeleton; growth epithelial–mesenchymal interaction; condensation; bone; cartilage; skeleton; growth

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Giffin, J.L.; Gaitor, D.; Franz-Odendaal, T.A. The Forgotten Skeletogenic Condensations: A Comparison of Early Skeletal Development Amongst Vertebrates. J. Dev. Biol. 2019, 7, 4.

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J. Dev. Biol. EISSN 2221-3759 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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