Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

J. Dev. Biol., Volume 6, Issue 3 (September 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-8
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessFeature PaperReview Insights into the Etiology of Mammalian Neural Tube Closure Defects from Developmental, Genetic and Evolutionary Studies
J. Dev. Biol. 2018, 6(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb6030022
Received: 15 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
Viewed by 966 | PDF Full-text (1601 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The human neural tube defects (NTD), anencephaly, spina bifida and craniorachischisis, originate from a failure of the embryonic neural tube to close. Human NTD are relatively common and both complex and heterogeneous in genetic origin, but the genetic variants and developmental mechanisms are
[...] Read more.
The human neural tube defects (NTD), anencephaly, spina bifida and craniorachischisis, originate from a failure of the embryonic neural tube to close. Human NTD are relatively common and both complex and heterogeneous in genetic origin, but the genetic variants and developmental mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we review the numerous studies, mainly in mice, of normal neural tube closure, the mechanisms of failure caused by specific gene mutations, and the evolution of the vertebrate cranial neural tube and its genetic processes, seeking insights into the etiology of human NTD. We find evidence of many regions along the anterior–posterior axis each differing in some aspect of neural tube closure—morphology, cell behavior, specific genes required—and conclude that the etiology of NTD is likely to be partly specific to the anterior–posterior location of the defect and also genetically heterogeneous. We revisit the hypotheses explaining the excess of females among cranial NTD cases in mice and humans and new developments in understanding the role of the folate pathway in NTD. Finally, we demonstrate that evidence from mouse mutants strongly supports the search for digenic or oligogenic etiology in human NTD of all types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of the Brain in Health and Disease)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Drosophila as a Model for Assessing the Function of RNA-Binding Proteins during Neurogenesis and Neurological Disease
J. Dev. Biol. 2018, 6(3), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb6030021
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
Viewed by 809 | PDF Full-text (1625 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An outstanding question in developmental neurobiology is how RNA processing events contribute to the regulation of neurogenesis. RNA processing events are increasingly recognized as playing fundamental roles in regulating multiple developmental events during neurogenesis, from the asymmetric divisions of neural stem cells, to
[...] Read more.
An outstanding question in developmental neurobiology is how RNA processing events contribute to the regulation of neurogenesis. RNA processing events are increasingly recognized as playing fundamental roles in regulating multiple developmental events during neurogenesis, from the asymmetric divisions of neural stem cells, to the generation of complex and diverse neurite morphologies. Indeed, both asymmetric cell division and neurite morphogenesis are often achieved by mechanisms that generate asymmetric protein distributions, including post-transcriptional gene regulatory mechanisms such as the transport of translationally silent messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and local translation of mRNAs within neurites. Additionally, defects in RNA splicing have emerged as a common theme in many neurodegenerative disorders, highlighting the importance of RNA processing in maintaining neuronal circuitry. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play an integral role in splicing and post-transcriptional gene regulation, and mutations in RBPs have been linked with multiple neurological disorders including autism, dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), Fragile X syndrome (FXS), and X-linked intellectual disability disorder. Despite their widespread nature and roles in neurological disease, the molecular mechanisms and networks of regulated target RNAs have been defined for only a small number of specific RBPs. This review aims to highlight recent studies in Drosophila that have advanced our knowledge of how RBP dysfunction contributes to neurological disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drosophila - A Model System for Developmental Biology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview A Potential Role for MMPs during the Formation of Non-Neurogenic Placodes
J. Dev. Biol. 2018, 6(3), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb6030020
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 26 July 2018
Viewed by 603 | PDF Full-text (1293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The formation of non-neurogenic placodes is critical prior to the development of several epithelial derivatives (e.g., feathers, teeth, etc.) and their development frequently involves morphogenetic proteins (or morphogens). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important enzymes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, and recent research has
[...] Read more.
The formation of non-neurogenic placodes is critical prior to the development of several epithelial derivatives (e.g., feathers, teeth, etc.) and their development frequently involves morphogenetic proteins (or morphogens). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important enzymes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, and recent research has shown that the extracellular matrix (ECM) can modulate morphogen diffusion and cell behaviors. This review summarizes the known roles of MMPs during the development of non-neurogenic structures that involve a placodal stage. Specifically, we discuss feather, hair, tooth, mammary gland and lens development. This review highlights the potential critical role MMPs may play during placode formation in these systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Matrix Remodelling during Development)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Heart Development, Coronary Vascularization and Ventricular Maturation in a Giant Danio (Devario malabaricus)
J. Dev. Biol. 2018, 6(3), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb6030019
Received: 16 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
Viewed by 1088 | PDF Full-text (4600 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Giant danios (genus Devario), like zebrafish, are teleosts belonging to the danioninae subfamily of cyprinids. Adult giant danios are used in a variety of investigations aimed at understanding cellular and physiological processes, including heart regeneration. Despite their importance, little is known about
[...] Read more.
Giant danios (genus Devario), like zebrafish, are teleosts belonging to the danioninae subfamily of cyprinids. Adult giant danios are used in a variety of investigations aimed at understanding cellular and physiological processes, including heart regeneration. Despite their importance, little is known about development and growth in giant danios, or their cardiac and coronary vessels development. To address this scarcity of knowledge, we performed a systematic study of a giant danio (Devario malabaricus), focusing on its cardiac development, from the segmentation period to ten months post-fertilization. Using light and scanning electron microscopy, we documented that its cardiovascular development and maturation proceed along well defined dynamic and conserved morphogenic patterns. The overall size and cardiovascular expansion of this species was significantly impacted by environmental parameters such as rearing densities. The coronary vasculature began to emerge in the late larval stage. More importantly, we documented two possible loci of initiation of the coronary vasculature in this species, and compared the emergence of the coronaries to that of zebrafish and gourami. This is the first comprehensive study of the cardiac growth in a Devario species, and our findings serve as an important reference for further investigations of cardiac biology using this species. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Development of Normal and Cleft Palate: A Central Role for Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF)/CCN2
J. Dev. Biol. 2018, 6(3), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb6030018
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 15 July 2018 / Accepted: 15 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
Viewed by 711 | PDF Full-text (3077 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Development of the palate is the result of an organized series of events that require exquisite spatial and temporal regulation at the cellular level. There are a myriad of growth factors, receptors and signaling pathways that have been shown to play an important
[...] Read more.
Development of the palate is the result of an organized series of events that require exquisite spatial and temporal regulation at the cellular level. There are a myriad of growth factors, receptors and signaling pathways that have been shown to play an important role in growth, elevation and/or fusion of the palatal shelves. Altered expression or activation of a number of these factors, receptors and signaling pathways have been shown to cause cleft palate in humans or mice with varying degrees of penetrance. This review will focus on connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) or CCN2, which was recently shown to play an essential role in formation of the secondary palate. Specifically, the absence of CCN2 in KO mice results in defective cellular processes that contribute to failure of palatal shelf growth, elevation and/or fusion. CCN2 is unique in that it has been shown to interact with a number of other factors important for palate development, including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), epidermal growth factor (EGF), Wnt proteins and transforming growth factor-βs (TGF-βs), thereby influencing their ability to bind to their receptors and mediate intracellular signaling. The role that these factors play in palate development and their specific interactions with CCN2 will also be reviewed. Future studies to elucidate the precise mechanisms of action for CCN2 and its interactions with other regulatory proteins during palatogenesis are expected to provide novel information with the potential for development of new pharmacologic or genetic treatment strategies for clinical intervention of cleft palate during development. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Specification and Patterning of Drosophila Appendages
J. Dev. Biol. 2018, 6(3), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb6030017
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
Viewed by 1168 | PDF Full-text (1506 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Appendages are external projections of the body that serve the animal for locomotion, feeding, or environment exploration. The appendages of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are derived from the imaginal discs, epithelial sac-like structures specified in the embryo that grow and pattern during
[...] Read more.
Appendages are external projections of the body that serve the animal for locomotion, feeding, or environment exploration. The appendages of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are derived from the imaginal discs, epithelial sac-like structures specified in the embryo that grow and pattern during larva development. In the last decades, genetic and developmental studies in the fruit fly have provided extensive knowledge regarding the mechanisms that direct the formation of the appendages. Importantly, many of the signaling pathways and patterning genes identified and characterized in Drosophila have similar functions during vertebrate appendage development. In this review, we will summarize the genetic and molecular mechanisms that lead to the specification of appendage primordia in the embryo and their posterior patterning during imaginal disc development. The identification of the regulatory logic underlying appendage specification in Drosophila suggests that the evolutionary origin of the insect wing is, in part, related to the development of ventral appendages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drosophila - A Model System for Developmental Biology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Forced Expression of Foxg1 in the Cortical Hem Leads to the Transformation of Cajal-Retzius Cells into Dentate Granule Neurons
J. Dev. Biol. 2018, 6(3), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb6030016
Received: 29 April 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 26 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
Viewed by 673 | PDF Full-text (28135 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Wnt- and BMP-rich cortical hem has been demonstrated to be critical for the pattern formation of the telencephalon, and it is particularly important for the induction of the hippocampus. Meanwhile, the cortical hem is one of the sources of Cajal-Retzius cells. Many
[...] Read more.
The Wnt- and BMP-rich cortical hem has been demonstrated to be critical for the pattern formation of the telencephalon, and it is particularly important for the induction of the hippocampus. Meanwhile, the cortical hem is one of the sources of Cajal-Retzius cells. Many Cajal-Retzius cells are produced in the hem and populated to the media-caudal surface of the telencephalon. However, the mechanism of the maintenance of the hem remain unclear. In this study, we generated a transgenic mouse line CAG-loxp-stop-loxp-Foxg1-IRES-EGFP. By crossing Fzd10CreERTM with this line, combined with tamoxifen induction, Foxg1 was ectopically expressed in the hem from embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) onwards. We have found the hem-derived Cajal-Retzius cells were transformed into dentate granule neurons accompanied with ectopic expression of Lhx2. However, the morphology of the hem displayed no obvious changes. The hem specific markers, Wnt3a and Wnt2b, were slightly downregulated. Our results indicate that Foxg1 is sufficient to induce the expression of Lhx2 in the dorsal part of the hem. The ectopic Lhx2 and decreased Wnt signals may both contribute to the cell fate switch. Our study provides new insight into the mechanism underlying the maintenance of the hem. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Impact of Two Different Cold-Extruded Feeds and Feeding Regimens on Zebrafish Survival, Growth and Reproductive Performance
J. Dev. Biol. 2018, 6(3), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb6030015
Received: 4 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 21 June 2018
Viewed by 679 | PDF Full-text (1201 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one of the top model organisms used in biomedical research. Therefore, it is fundamental that zebrafish facilities continuously improve husbandry methods to provide fish with the best physiological and welfare conditions that suit each experimental purpose. Nutrition
[...] Read more.
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one of the top model organisms used in biomedical research. Therefore, it is fundamental that zebrafish facilities continuously improve husbandry methods to provide fish with the best physiological and welfare conditions that suit each experimental purpose. Nutrition is a husbandry aspect that needs further optimization, as it greatly affects growth, reproduction, health and behaviour. Here, we have compared the impact of different feeding regimens on zebrafish survival, growth and reproductive performance. Mutant and wild-type zebrafish were raised using several combinations of two cold-extruded processed feeds—Skretting®GemmaMicro and Sparos®Zebrafeed—and one live feed (rotifers). Zebrafeed® outperformed GemmaMicro® in terms of survival rate, and embryo viability was also higher when the spawners were fed with Zebrafeed® either from larval stage or upon sexual maturation. In contrast, GemmaMicro® favoured growth, both in size and weight. The use of rotifers until 60 days post-fertilization improved survival of fish co-fed with GemmaMicro®, while delaying their growth. Zebrafeed® performance was not affected by co-feeding rotifers. Overall, we showed that different nutritional formulas affect physiological parameters, allowing for the establishment of feeding protocols adapted to the objectives of each facility. At the same time, we validated Skretting®GemmaMicro and Sparos®Zebrafeed as two commercially available feeds that are well suited for zebrafish nutrition in a laboratory environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zebrafish - A Model System for Developmental Biology Study)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top