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Characterization of Yak Common Biofluids Metabolome by Means of Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Department of Agro-Food Science and Technology, University of Bologna, Piazza Goidanich 60, 47521 Cesena, Italy
College of Food, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya’an 625014, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metabolites 2019, 9(3), 41;
Received: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 2 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NMR-based Metabolomics and Its Applications Volume 2)
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic profiles of yak (Bos grunniens) serum, feces, and urine by using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), to serve as a reference guide for the healthy yak milieu. A total of 108 metabolites, giving information about diet, protein digestion, and energy generation or gut-microbial co-metabolism, were assigned across the three biological matrices. A core metabolome of 15 metabolites was ubiquitous across all biofluids. Lactate, acetate, and creatinine could be regarded as the most abundant metabolites in the metabolome of serum, feces, and urine, respectively. Metabolic pathway analysis showed that the molecules identified could be able to give thorough information about four main metabolic pathways, namely valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis; phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis; glutamine and glutamate metabolism; and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: yak; Bos grunniens; serum; feces; urine; metabolomics; 1H-NMR yak; Bos grunniens; serum; feces; urine; metabolomics; 1H-NMR

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Zhu, C.; Li, C.; Wang, Y.; Laghi, L. Characterization of Yak Common Biofluids Metabolome by Means of Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Metabolites 2019, 9, 41.

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