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Electronics 2018, 7(8), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7080151

On-Line Application of SHEM by Particle Swarm Optimization to Grid-Connected, Three-Phase, Two-Level VSCs with Variable DC Link Voltage

1
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, Ankara TR 06800, Turkey
2
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara TR 06800, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Abstract

This paper is devoted to an otablen-line application of the selective harmonic elimination method (SHEM) to three-phase, two-level, grid-connected voltage source converters (VSCs) by particle swarm optimization (PSO). In such systems, active power can be controlled by the phase shift angle, and reactive power by the modulation index, against variations in the direct current (DC) link voltage. Some selected, low-odd-order harmonic components in the line-to-neutral output voltage waveforms are eliminated by calculating the SHEM angle set continuously through the developed PSO algorithm on field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based computing hardware as the modulation index is varied. The use of powerful computing hardware permits the elimination of all harmonics up to 50th. The cost function of the developed PSO algorithm is formulated by using an optimum number of particles to obtain a global optimum solution with a small fitness value in each half-cycle of the grid voltage and then updating the SHEM angle set at the beginning of the next full-cycle. Since the convergence of the solution to a global minimum point depends upon the use of correct initial values especially for a large number of SHEM angles, a generalized initialization procedure is also described in the paper. Theoretical results are verified initially using hardware co-simulation. They are also tested using a small scale photovoltaic (PV) supply prototype developed specifically for this purpose. It is demonstrated that the 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th, 17th, and 19th sidekick harmonics are eliminated by on-line calculation of seven SHEM angles through the developed PSO algorithm on a moderately powerful XEM6010-LX150, USB-2.0-integrated FPGA module. All control and protection actions and the calculation of SHEM angles are achieved by a single FPGA chip and its peripherals within the FPGA board. View Full-Text
Keywords: field-programmable gate array; particle swarm optimization; selective harmonic elimination method; voltage source converter field-programmable gate array; particle swarm optimization; selective harmonic elimination method; voltage source converter
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Güvengir, U.; Çadırcı, I.; Ermiş, M. On-Line Application of SHEM by Particle Swarm Optimization to Grid-Connected, Three-Phase, Two-Level VSCs with Variable DC Link Voltage. Electronics 2018, 7, 151.

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