Previous Issue
Volume 8, June

Table of Contents

Systems, Volume 8, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 6 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Trust Perceptions of Metadata in Open-Source Software: The Role of Performance and Reputation
Systems 2020, 8(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems8030028 - 12 Aug 2020
Viewed by 163
Abstract
Open-source software (OSS) is a key aspect of software creation. However, little is known about programmers’ decisions to trust software from OSS websites. The current study emulated OSS websites and manipulated reputation and performance factors in the stimuli according to the heuristic-systematic processing [...] Read more.
Open-source software (OSS) is a key aspect of software creation. However, little is known about programmers’ decisions to trust software from OSS websites. The current study emulated OSS websites and manipulated reputation and performance factors in the stimuli according to the heuristic-systematic processing model. We sampled professional programmers—with a minimum experience of three years—from Amazon Mechanical Turk (N = 38). We used a 3 × 3 within-subjects design to investigate the relationship between OSS reputation and performance on users’ time spent on code, the number of interface clicks, trustworthiness perceptions, and willingness to use OSS code. We found that participants spent more time on and clicked the interface more often for code that was high in reputation. Meta-information included with OSS tools was found to affect the degree to which computer programmers interact with and perceive online code repositories. Furthermore, participants reported higher levels of perceived trustworthiness in and trust toward highly reputable OSS code. Notably, we observed fewer significant main effects for the performance manipulation, which may correspond to participants considering performance attributes mainly within the context of reputation-relevant information. That is, the degree to which programmers investigate and then trust OSS code may depend on the initial reputation ratings. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Wargame-Augmented Knowledge Elicitation Method for the Agile Development of Novel Systems
Systems 2020, 8(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems8030027 - 12 Aug 2020
Viewed by 114
Abstract
There are inherent difficulties in designing an effective Human–Machine Interface (HMI) for a first-of-its-kind system. Many leading cognitive research methods rely upon experts with prior experiences using the system and/or some type of existing mockups or working prototype of the HMI, and neither [...] Read more.
There are inherent difficulties in designing an effective Human–Machine Interface (HMI) for a first-of-its-kind system. Many leading cognitive research methods rely upon experts with prior experiences using the system and/or some type of existing mockups or working prototype of the HMI, and neither of these resources are available for such a new system. Further, these methods are time consuming and incompatible with more rapid and iterative systems development models (e.g., Agile/Scrum). To address these challenges, we developed a Wargame-Augmented Knowledge Elicitation (WAKE) method to identify information requirements and underlying assumptions in operator decision making concurrently with operational concepts. The developed WAKE method incorporates naturalistic observations of operator decision making in a wargaming scenario with freeze-probe queries and structured analytic techniques to identify and prioritize information requirements for a novel HMI. An overview of the method, required apparatus, and associated analytical techniques is provided. Outcomes, lessons learned, and topics for future research resulting from two different applications of the WAKE method are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Factors in Systems Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Method to Account for Personnel Risk Attitudes in System Design and Maintenance Activity Development
Systems 2020, 8(3), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems8030026 - 04 Aug 2020
Viewed by 218
Abstract
Systems engineering practices in the maritime industry and the Navy consider operational availability as a system attribute determined by system components and a maintenance concept. A better understanding of the risk attitudes of system operators and maintainers may be useful in understanding potential [...] Read more.
Systems engineering practices in the maritime industry and the Navy consider operational availability as a system attribute determined by system components and a maintenance concept. A better understanding of the risk attitudes of system operators and maintainers may be useful in understanding potential impacts the system operators and maintainers have on operational availability. This article contributes to the literature a method that synthesizes the concepts of system reliability, and operator and maintainer risk attitudes to provide insight into the effect that risk attitudes of systems operators and maintainers have on system operational availability. The method consists of four steps providing the engineer with a risk-attitude-adjusted insight into the system’s potential operational availability. Systems engineers may use the method to iterate a system’s design or maintenance concept to improve expected operational availability. If it is deemed necessary to redesign a system, systems engineers will likely choose new system components and/or alter their configuration; however, redesign is not limited to physical alteration of the system. Several other options may be more practical depending the system’s stage in the life cycle to address low risk-adjusted operational availability such as changes to maintenance programs and system supportability rather than on component and system reliability. A simple representative example implementation is provided to demonstrate the method and discussion of the potential implications for Navy ship availability are discussed. Potential future work is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systems Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Leveraging Quasi-Experimental Methods to Estimate Model Structure: Understanding School Funding Changes in Response to Court Orders
Systems 2020, 8(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems8030025 - 27 Jul 2020
Viewed by 300
Abstract
We discuss an approach to using the event study, a common experimental design in the social sciences, to parameterize delays and develop other insights into system structure. We show a step-by-step process for undertaking a delay event study, discuss some of the conceptual [...] Read more.
We discuss an approach to using the event study, a common experimental design in the social sciences, to parameterize delays and develop other insights into system structure. We show a step-by-step process for undertaking a delay event study, discuss some of the conceptual reasons that this provides information about the delay, and illustrate the process for a typical example. We find evidence that school funding changes following court orders do not adjust quickly, and likely follow a higher-order, as opposed to a first-order, delay process. Our tests also suggest that school district budget makers appear to forecast revenue pessimistically, contributing an additional source of delay to the system. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of the COVID-19 Pandemic
Systems 2020, 8(3), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems8030024 - 13 Jul 2020
Viewed by 559
Abstract
The current pandemic is a great challenge for several research areas. In addition to virology research, mathematical models and simulations can be a valuable contribution to the understanding of the dynamics of the pandemic and can give recommendations to physicians and politicians. Based [...] Read more.
The current pandemic is a great challenge for several research areas. In addition to virology research, mathematical models and simulations can be a valuable contribution to the understanding of the dynamics of the pandemic and can give recommendations to physicians and politicians. Based on actual data of people infected with COVID-19 from the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), input parameters of mathematical models will be determined and applied. These parameters will be estimated for the UK, Italy, Spain, and Germany and used in an S I R -type model. As a basis for the model’s calibration, the initial exponential growth phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in the named countries is used. Strategies for the commencing and ending of social and economic shutdown measures are discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Systems Thinking: A Review and Bibliometric Analysis
Systems 2020, 8(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems8030023 - 04 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 632
Abstract
Systems thinking (ST) is an interdisciplinary domain that offers different ways to better understand the behavior and structure of a complex system. Over the past decades, several publications can be identified in academic literature, focusing on different aspects of systems thinking. However, two [...] Read more.
Systems thinking (ST) is an interdisciplinary domain that offers different ways to better understand the behavior and structure of a complex system. Over the past decades, several publications can be identified in academic literature, focusing on different aspects of systems thinking. However, two critical questions are not properly addressed in the extant body of ST literature: (i) How to conduct the content analysis exclusively to derive the prominent statistics (i.e., influential journals, authors, affiliated organizations and countries) pertaining to the domain of ST? (ii) How to get better insights regarding the current and emerging trends that may evolve over time based on the existing body of ST literature? To address these gaps, the aim of this research study is to provide a comprehensive insight into the domain of systems thinking through bibliometric and network analysis. Beginning with over 6000 accumulated publications, the analysis narrowed down to 626 prominent articles with proven influence published over the past three decades. Leveraging rigorous bibliometric tools analysis, this research unveils the influential authors, leading journals and top contributing organizations and countries germane to the domain of systems thinking. In addition, citation, co-citation and page rank analysis used to rank top influential articles in the area of systems thinking. Finally, with the aid of the network analysis, key clusters in the existing literature are identified based on the research areas of systems thinking. The findings of this research will serve as a bluebook for practitioners and scholars to conduct future research within systems thinking context. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop