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Fibers, Volume 1, Issue 3 (December 2013) – 8 articles , Pages 36-118

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Article
The Development of Advanced Optical Fibers for Long-Wave Infrared Transmission
Fibers 2013, 1(3), 110-118; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib1030110 - 17 Dec 2013
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3499
Abstract
Long-wave infrared fibers are used in an increasing number of applications ranging from thermal imaging to bio-sensing. However, the design of optical fiber with low-loss in the far-infrared requires a combination of properties including good rheological characteristics for fiber drawing and low phonon [...] Read more.
Long-wave infrared fibers are used in an increasing number of applications ranging from thermal imaging to bio-sensing. However, the design of optical fiber with low-loss in the far-infrared requires a combination of properties including good rheological characteristics for fiber drawing and low phonon energy for wide optical transparency, which are often mutually exclusive and can only be achieved through fine materials engineering. This paper presents strategies for obtaining low loss fibers in the far-infrared based on telluride glasses. The composition of the glasses is systematically investigated to obtained fibers with minimal losses. The fiber attenuation is shown to depend strongly on extrinsic impurity but also on intrinsic charge carrier populations in these low band-gap amorphous semiconductor materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Optical Fibers)
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Article
Photodarkening of Infrared Irradiated Yb3+-Doped Alumino-Silicate Glasses: Effect on UV Absorption Bands and Fluorescence Spectra
Fibers 2013, 1(3), 101-109; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib1030101 - 10 Dec 2013
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3879
Abstract
The photodarkening phenomenon in alumino-silicate glass preforms, doped with different ytterbium concentrations, was studied. The UV band, comprised between 180 and 350 nm, was examined before and after irradiation at 976 nm. The non-linear dependence of 240 nm band with concentration after infra-red [...] Read more.
The photodarkening phenomenon in alumino-silicate glass preforms, doped with different ytterbium concentrations, was studied. The UV band, comprised between 180 and 350 nm, was examined before and after irradiation at 976 nm. The non-linear dependence of 240 nm band with concentration after infra-red irradiation was demonstrated and ascribed predominantly to Yb3+ pair’s interaction. The emission spectrum after the excitation in UV spectral region showed increased intensity after photodarkening, probably due to Yb2+ ions creation. Phenomenological photodarkening model and the possible existence of several defect types are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Optical Fibers)
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Article
Characteristics and Laser Performance of Yb3+-Doped Silica Large Mode Area Fibers Prepared by Sol–Gel Method
Fibers 2013, 1(3), 93-100; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib1030093 - 10 Dec 2013
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3746
Abstract
Large-size 0.1 Yb2O3–1.0 Al2O3–98.9 SiO2 (mol%) core glass was prepared by the sol–gel method. Its optical properties were evaluated. Both large mode area double cladding fiber (LMA DCF) with core diameter of 48 µm [...] Read more.
Large-size 0.1 Yb2O3–1.0 Al2O3–98.9 SiO2 (mol%) core glass was prepared by the sol–gel method. Its optical properties were evaluated. Both large mode area double cladding fiber (LMA DCF) with core diameter of 48 µm and large mode area photonic crystal fiber (LMA PCF) with core diameter of 90 µm were prepared from this core glass. Transmission loss at 1200 nm is 0.41 dB/m. Refractive index fluctuation is less than 2 × 10−4. Pumped by 976 nm laser diode LD pigtailed with silica fiber (NA 0.22), the slope efficiency of 54% and “light-to-light” conversion efficiency of 51% were realized in large mode area double cladding fiber, and 81 W laser power with a slope efficiency of 70.8% was achieved in the corresponding large mode area photonic crystal fiber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Optical Fibers)
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Article
Heavily Tm3+-Doped Silicate Fiber for High-Gain Fiber Amplifiers
Fibers 2013, 1(3), 82-92; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib1030082 - 03 Dec 2013
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4095
Abstract
We report on investigation the potential of a 7 wt% (8.35 × 1020 Tm3+/cm3) doped silicate fibers for high-gain fiber amplifiers. Such a high ion concentration significantly reduces the required fiber length of high-power 2 μm fiber laser [...] Read more.
We report on investigation the potential of a 7 wt% (8.35 × 1020 Tm3+/cm3) doped silicate fibers for high-gain fiber amplifiers. Such a high ion concentration significantly reduces the required fiber length of high-power 2 μm fiber laser systems and allows the high-repetition rate operation in 2 μm mode-locked fiber lasers. To evaluate the feasibility of extracting high gain-per-unit-length from this gain medium, we measure several key material properties of the silicate fiber, including the absorption/emission cross-sections, upper-state lifetime, fiber background loss, and photodarkening resistance. We show through numerical simulations that a signal gain-per-unit-length of 3.78 dB/cm at 1950 nm can be achieved in a watt-level core-pumped Tm3+-doped silicate fiber amplifier. In addition, an 18-dB 2013-nm amplifier is demonstrated in a 50-cm 7 wt% Tm3+-doped double-clad silicate fiber. Finally, we experimentally confirm that the reported silicate host exhibits no observable photodarkening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Optical Fibers)
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Article
Towards Water-Free Tellurite Glass Fiber for 2–5 μm Nonlinear Applications
Fibers 2013, 1(3), 70-81; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib1030070 - 22 Nov 2013
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4165
Abstract
We report our recent progress on fabricating dehydrated tellurite glass fibers. Low OH content (1 ppm in weight) has been achieved in a new halogen-containing lead tellurite glass fiber. Low OH-induced attenuation of 10 dB/m has been confirmed in the range of 3–4 [...] Read more.
We report our recent progress on fabricating dehydrated tellurite glass fibers. Low OH content (1 ppm in weight) has been achieved in a new halogen-containing lead tellurite glass fiber. Low OH-induced attenuation of 10 dB/m has been confirmed in the range of 3–4 µm using three measurement methods. This shows the dehydrated halo-tellurite glass fiber is a promising candidate for nonlinear applications in a 2–5 µm region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Optical Fibers)
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Article
Comparative Evaluation of Physical and Structural Properties of Water Retted and Non-retted Flax Fibers
Fibers 2013, 1(3), 59-69; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib1030059 - 23 Oct 2013
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3715
Abstract
Flax stems of Modran variety were subjected to water retting under laboratory conditions and its physical properties were compared with non-retted fibers. Physical properties including percentage of impurities, weighted average length, linear density, tenacity and elongation were analyzed and the results were compared. [...] Read more.
Flax stems of Modran variety were subjected to water retting under laboratory conditions and its physical properties were compared with non-retted fibers. Physical properties including percentage of impurities, weighted average length, linear density, tenacity and elongation were analyzed and the results were compared. The analysis of retted and non-retted flax fibers showed that retting is the most important step in the processing of flax fibers and it directly affects quality attributes like strength, fineness, and homogeneity. Scanning Electron microscope images of fibers were also analyzed and the retted fibers showed much cleaner surface when compared to decorticated non-retted fibers. Full article
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Article
Mechanical Reinforcement of Wool Fiber through Polyelectrolyte Complexation with Chitosan and Gellan Gum
Fibers 2013, 1(3), 47-58; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib1030047 - 18 Oct 2013
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3340
Abstract
The formation of polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) wool fibers formed by dipping chitosan or gellan gum-treated wool fibers into biopolymer solutions of opposite charge is reported. Treating wool fibers with chitosan (CH) and gellan gum (GG) solutions containing food dyes resulted in improved mechanical [...] Read more.
The formation of polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) wool fibers formed by dipping chitosan or gellan gum-treated wool fibers into biopolymer solutions of opposite charge is reported. Treating wool fibers with chitosan (CH) and gellan gum (GG) solutions containing food dyes resulted in improved mechanical characteristics compared to wool fibers. In contrast, pH modification of the solutions resulted in the opposite effect. The mechanical characteristics of PEC-treated fibers were affected by the order of addition, i.e., dipping GG-treated fibers into chitosan resulted in mechanical reinforcement, whereas the reverse-order process did not. Full article
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Article
Double Two-Dimensional Discrete Fast Fourier Transform for Determining of Geometrical Parameters of Fibers and Textiles
Fibers 2013, 1(3), 36-46; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib1030036 - 15 Oct 2013
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3387
Abstract
We have developed a computing method to determine the geometrical parameters of fibers and the textile periodical structure. This method combines two two-dimensional discrete fast Fourier transforms to calculate a diffraction pattern from a diffraction pattern image of material under consideration. The result [...] Read more.
We have developed a computing method to determine the geometrical parameters of fibers and the textile periodical structure. This method combines two two-dimensional discrete fast Fourier transforms to calculate a diffraction pattern from a diffraction pattern image of material under consideration. The result is the same as that of observation of a diffraction pattern which is achieved by illuminating the diffraction pattern image of material by a beam of coherent monochromatic light. After the first transform we obtain the Fraunhofer diffraction picture with clearly visible elements of the periodical structure of material, but distances in this picture are reciprocally proportional to distances in the periodical structure of the source object so additional calculations are required. After the second transform we have a clear periodical structure of diffraction maximums where distances between them are equal to distances between repeating elements in the source material (fibers, knots, yarns, etc.). Full article
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