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Morphological Observation and Correlation of Growth and Yield Characteristics with Grain Quality and Antioxidant Activities in Exotic Rice Varieties of Afghanistan

1
Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 739-8529, Japan
2
Faculty of Agriculture, Nangarhar University, Nangarhar 2601, Afghanistan
3
Badam Bagh Research Station, Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock, Kabul 1001, Afghanistan
4
Kunduz Directorate of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock, Kunduz 3501, Afghanistan
5
Nangarhar Directorate of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock, Nangarhar 2601, Afghanistan
6
Agricultural Genetics Institute, Pham Van Dong Street, Hanoi 122000, Vietnam
7
Faculty of Biotechnology, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, 298A-300A Nguyen Tat Thanh Street, Ward 13, District 4, Ho Chi Minh 72820, Vietnam
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agriculture 2019, 9(8), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9080167
Received: 26 June 2019 / Revised: 23 July 2019 / Accepted: 23 July 2019 / Published: 1 August 2019
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Abstract

Rice is an important staple food for Afghans. Its production has been increased, and attention is needed to improve grain quality. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the growth, yield, physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and morphological structures of four exotic rice varieties widely grown in Afghanistan (Attai-1, Jalalabad-14, Shishambagh-14, and Zodrass). Antioxidant activities, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), of rice grain were determined. A scanning electron microscopic observation was conducted on the cross-cut section of dehulled rice grains. The results showed a wide variation among four rice varieties for growth, grain yield, physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities, and morphology. Tiller and panicle number per hill, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, and antioxidant activities were found to be highest in Jalalabad-14. Attai-1 showed lower amylose, protein, and lipid contents with a high number of perfect grains, consequently enhanced taste point (score of quality). Grain yield, protein, and amylose contents showed a negative correlation with antioxidant activities. Accumulated structures in Attai-1, Shishambagh-14, and Zodrass were normal; however, Jalalabad-14 increased protein bodies and its traces in the amyloplasts. Information on yield potential, grain quality, and nutritional value of these exotic rice varieties may useful for sustainable food provision and nutritional improvement of rice in Afghanistan. View Full-Text
Keywords: rice; growth; yield; grain quality; antioxidant activity; morphological observation; scanning electron microscope rice; growth; yield; grain quality; antioxidant activity; morphological observation; scanning electron microscope
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Kakar, K.; Xuan, T.D.; Abdiani, S.; Wafa, I.K.; Noori, Z.; Attai, S.; Khanh, T.D.; Tran, H.-D. Morphological Observation and Correlation of Growth and Yield Characteristics with Grain Quality and Antioxidant Activities in Exotic Rice Varieties of Afghanistan. Agriculture 2019, 9, 167.

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