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J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8020224

Non-Aβ-Dependent Factors Associated with Global Cognitive and Physical Function in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Pilot Multivariate Analysis

1
Departement of Neuroscience, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Via Casorati 43, 37127 Verona, Italy
2
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
3
Neuromotor and Cognitive Rehabilitation Research Centre, University of Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy
4
Department of Surgical and Biomedical Sciences, Section of Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Perugia, 06123 Perugia, Italy
5
Department of Computer Science, University of Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy
6
Department of Medicine and Aging Sciences, University G. d’Annunzio, Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
7
Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedic Science, 00185 Rome, Italy
8
Neuroradiology, Department of Diagnostics and Pathology, Verona University Hospital, 37134 Verona, Italy
9
Mons. Mazzali Foundation, 46100 Mantua, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 9 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effects of Exercise on Cognitive Function)
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Abstract

Recent literature highlights the importance of identifying factors associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Actual validated biomarkers include neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid assessments; however, we investigated non-Aβ-dependent factors associated with dementia in 12 MCI and 30 AD patients. Patients were assessed for global cognitive function (Mini-Mental state examination—MMSE), physical function (Physical Performance Test—PPT), exercise capacity (6-min walking test—6MWT), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), brain volume, vascular function (flow-mediated dilation—FMD), inflammatory status (tumor necrosis factor—α ,TNF- α, interleukin-6, -10 and -15) and neurotrophin receptors (p75NTR and Tropomyosin receptor kinase A -TrkA). Baseline multifactorial information was submitted to two separate backward stepwise regression analyses to identify the variables associated with cognitive and physical decline in demented patients. A multivariate regression was then applied to verify the stepwise regression. The results indicated that the combination of 6MWT and VO2max was associated with both global cognitive and physical function (MMSE = 11.384 + (0.00599 × 6MWT) − (0.235 × VO2max)); (PPT = 1.848 + (0.0264 × 6MWT) + (19.693 × VO2max)). These results may offer important information that might help to identify specific targets for therapeutic strategies (NIH Clinical trial identification number NCT03034746). View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; mild cognitive impairment; dementia; exercise; memory; physical activity Alzheimer’s disease; mild cognitive impairment; dementia; exercise; memory; physical activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Pedrinolla, A.; Venturelli, M.; Tamburin, S.; Fonte, C.; Stabile, A.M.; Boscolo Galazzo, I.; Ghinassi, B.; Venneri, M.A.; Pizzini, F.B.; Muti, E.; Smania, N.; Di Baldassarre, A.; Naro, F.; Rende, M.; Schena, F. Non-Aβ-Dependent Factors Associated with Global Cognitive and Physical Function in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Pilot Multivariate Analysis. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 224.

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