Next Article in Journal
Transient Laterality of Cerebral Oxygenation Changes in Response to Head-of-Bed Manipulation in Acute Ischemic Stroke
Next Article in Special Issue
Stress Exposure and the Course of ADHD from Childhood to Young Adulthood: Comorbid Severe Emotion Dysregulation or Mood and Anxiety Problems
Previous Article in Journal
Normal Alpha-Fetoprotein Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Are They Really Normal?
Previous Article in Special Issue
Prevalence of ADHD in Accident Victims: Results of the PRADA Study
Open AccessReview

Advances in Understanding the Relationship between Sleep and Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Department of Psychology, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Rome 00185, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(10), 1737; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8101737
Received: 25 September 2019 / Revised: 9 October 2019 / Accepted: 17 October 2019 / Published: 19 October 2019
Starting from the consolidated relationship between sleep and cognition, we reviewed the available literature on the association between Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and sleep. This review analyzes the macrostructural and microstructural sleep features, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses criteria (PRISMA). We included the polysomnographic studies published in the last 15 years. The results of macrostructural parameters are mixed. Almost half of the 18 selected investigations did not find differences between sleep architecture of children with ADHD and controls. Five studies observed that children with ADHD show a longer Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep duration than controls. Eight studies included microstructural measures. Remarkable alterations in sleep microstructure of ADHD are related to slow wave activity (SWA) and theta oscillations, respectively, during Non-REM (NREM) and REM sleep. Specifically, some studies found higher SWA in the ADHD group than controls. Similarly, higher theta activity appears to be detrimental for memory performance and inhibitory control in ADHD. These patterns could be interpreted as a maturational delay in ADHD. Also, the increased amount of these activities would be consistent with the hypothesis that the poor sleep could imply a chronic sleep deprivation in children with ADHD, which in turn could affect their cognitive functioning. View Full-Text
Keywords: ADHD; sleep; PSG; macrostructure; microstructure; theta; slow wave activity; EEG; memory; cognition ADHD; sleep; PSG; macrostructure; microstructure; theta; slow wave activity; EEG; memory; cognition
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Scarpelli, S.; Gorgoni, M.; D’Atri, A.; Reda, F.; De Gennaro, L. Advances in Understanding the Relationship between Sleep and Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 1737.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop