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Antioxidants 2018, 7(8), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7080103

Solvent Extraction of Polyphenolics from the Indigenous African Fruit Ximenia caffra and Characterization by LC-HRMS

1
Department of Process Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch 7600, South Africa
2
Central Analytical Facility, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch 7600, South Africa
3
Department of Microbiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto PMB 2346, Nigeria
4
Department of Applied Chemistry and Biochemistry, University for Development Studies, Navrongo, Ghana
5
Department of Food, Nutrition and Home Sciences, Kogi State University, Anyigba 1008, Nigeria
6
Department of Food Science and Technology, The Federal University of Technology, Akure PMB 704, Nigeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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Abstract

Indigenous and non-commercial fruits can be an important source of antioxidant polyphenols; however, the identity and content of polyphenols from non-commercial fruits are often poorly described. The study aimed to extract, identify, and quantify polyphenols from the skin of the indigenous Africa fruit Ximenia caffra, using solvent extraction. Three solvents (hexane, acetone, and 70% v/v ethanol) over three extraction times (30, 60 and 120 min) were used in a 32 full factorial experimental design to determine effects on polyphenol recovery, and individual polyphenolics were characterised using liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Ethanol was the most effective extraction solvent, and extracts had high levels of total phenolics and flavonoids (65 mg gallic and 40 mg catechin equivalents per gram dry sample respectively), and high antioxidant activity (18.2 mg mL−1 ascorbic acid equivalents). LC-HRMS positively identified 16 compounds, of which 14 were flavonoids including flavonoid glycosides, and indicated that concentrations of some flavonoids decreased for extraction times beyond 60 min. It was concluded that the fruit of Ximenia caffra is rich in natural polyphenolic antioxidants; the present work identified and quantified a number of these, while also establishing suitable solvent extraction conditions for the recovery of these potentially high-value compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioactive phytochemicals; flavonoids; indigenous African fruit; natural antioxidants; polyphenols; solvent extraction bioactive phytochemicals; flavonoids; indigenous African fruit; natural antioxidants; polyphenols; solvent extraction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Oosthuizen, D.; Goosen, N.J.; Stander, M.A.; Ibrahim, A.D.; Pedavoah, M.-M.; Usman, G.O.; Aderinola, T. Solvent Extraction of Polyphenolics from the Indigenous African Fruit Ximenia caffra and Characterization by LC-HRMS. Antioxidants 2018, 7, 103.

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