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Appl. Sci., Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2015) , Pages 1-47

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Open AccessArticle
Ion Acceleration by Short Chirped Laser Pulses
Appl. Sci. 2015, 5(1), 36-47; https://doi.org/10.3390/app5010036 - 17 Feb 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2721
Abstract
Direct laser acceleration of ions by short frequency chirped laser pulses is investigated theoretically. We demonstrate that intense beams of ions with a kinetic energy broadening of about 1% can be generated. The chirping of the laser pulse allows the particles to gain [...] Read more.
Direct laser acceleration of ions by short frequency chirped laser pulses is investigated theoretically. We demonstrate that intense beams of ions with a kinetic energy broadening of about 1% can be generated. The chirping of the laser pulse allows the particles to gain kinetic energies of hundreds of MeVs, which is required for hadron cancer therapy, from pulses of energies in the order of 100 J. It is shown that few-cycle chirped pulses can accelerate ions more efficiently than long ones, i.e., higher ion kinetic energies are reached with the same amount of total electromagnetic pulse energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Casting Light on Cancer Therapy)
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Open AccessReview
Vibrational Microspectroscopy for Cancer Screening
Appl. Sci. 2015, 5(1), 23-35; https://doi.org/10.3390/app5010023 - 13 Feb 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2841
Abstract
Vibrational spectroscopy analyses vibrations within a molecule and can be used to characterise a molecular structure. Raman spectroscopy is one of the vibrational spectroscopic techniques, in which incident radiation is used to induce vibrations in the molecules of a sample, and the scattered [...] Read more.
Vibrational spectroscopy analyses vibrations within a molecule and can be used to characterise a molecular structure. Raman spectroscopy is one of the vibrational spectroscopic techniques, in which incident radiation is used to induce vibrations in the molecules of a sample, and the scattered radiation may be used to characterise the sample in a rapid and non-destructive manner. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a complementary vibrational spectroscopic technique based on the absorption of IR radiation by the sample. Molecules absorb specific frequencies of the incident light which are characteristic of their structure. IR and Raman spectroscopy are sensitive to subtle biochemical changes occurring at the molecular level allowing spectral variations corresponding to disease onset to be detected. Over the past 15 years, there have been numerous reports demonstrating the potential of IR and Raman spectroscopy together with multivariate statistical analysis techniques for the detection of a variety of cancers including, breast, lung, brain, colon, oral, oesophageal, prostate and cervical cancer. This paper discusses the recent advances and the future perspectives in relation to cancer screening applications, focussing on cervical and oral cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Casting Light on Cancer Therapy)
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Applied Sciences in 2014
Appl. Sci. 2015, 5(1), 21-22; https://doi.org/10.3390/app5010021 - 08 Jan 2015
Viewed by 1868
Abstract
The editors of Applied Sciences would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2014:[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Laser-Driven Very High Energy Electron/Photon Beam Radiation Therapy in Conjunction with a Robotic System
Appl. Sci. 2015, 5(1), 1-20; https://doi.org/10.3390/app5010001 - 29 Dec 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4031
Abstract
We present a new external-beam radiation therapy system using very-high-energy (VHE) electron/photon beams generated by a centimeter-scale laser plasma accelerator built in a robotic system. Most types of external-beam radiation therapy are delivered using a machine called a medical linear accelerator driven by [...] Read more.
We present a new external-beam radiation therapy system using very-high-energy (VHE) electron/photon beams generated by a centimeter-scale laser plasma accelerator built in a robotic system. Most types of external-beam radiation therapy are delivered using a machine called a medical linear accelerator driven by radio frequency (RF) power amplifiers, producing electron beams with an energy range of 6–20 MeV, in conjunction with modern radiation therapy technologies for effective shaping of three-dimensional dose distributions and spatially accurate dose delivery with imaging verification. However, the limited penetration depth and low quality of the transverse penumbra at such electron beams delivered from the present RF linear accelerators prevent the implementation of advanced modalities in current cancer treatments. These drawbacks can be overcome if the electron energy is increased to above 50 MeV. To overcome the disadvantages of the present RF-based medical accelerators, harnessing recent advancement of laser-driven plasma accelerators capable of producing 1-GeV electron beams in a 1-cm gas cell, we propose a new embodiment of the external-beam radiation therapy robotic system delivering very high-energy electron/photon beams with an energy of 50–250 MeV; it is more compact, less expensive, and has a simpler operation and higher performance in comparison with the current radiation therapy system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Casting Light on Cancer Therapy)
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