Advances in the Restoration of Buildings with LIDAR Technology and 3D Reconstruction: Forged and Vaults of the Refectory of Santo Domingo de Orihuela (16th Century)
State of the Art LIDAR and Photogrammetry
2.1. Analysis of Available Documentation
2.2. Description of the Works Defined in the Restoration Project
- Prior to the start of the restoration work, unique elements, such as the 18th century tile plinth, which is located around the perimeter of the base of the Refectory, and the mural paintings found both at the head and foot of this single rectangular nave, were protected;
- Prior to the demolition work on the floor slabs resting on semicircular arches, falsework has been installed to ensure the safety and stability of the vaults and arches;
- The exterior wall of the refectory is stabilised and consolidated by injecting fluid lime mortar. The existing cracks in the vaults and arches are sealed with special lime mortar and some stitching is carried out with vitroresin rods. The CINTEC ST system was used to tie the walls enclosing the refectory in order to ensure that the separated parts were sewn together. The back of the vaults is reinforced by plastering with PLANITOP HDM Restauro fibre-reinforced bicomponent mortar reinforced with Mapei fibreglass mesh, guaranteeing their uniformity [20,21,22,23,24];
- Subsequently, the new horizontal frameworks of the second floor (floor slab over the refectory) with one-way floor slabs using laminated wood beams with a double waterproof board beam and a compression layer of 8 cm thick lightened concrete, reinforced with electro-welded mesh, were installed;
- In the exterior lateral area, adjacent to the refectory, on the buttresses, there are reinforced concrete joist-beam slabs built in situ. All of them are tied perimetrically by means of reinforced concrete strapping and metal profiles, with the aim of organising a perimeter framework tying all the floor slabs both on the arches and on the walls that delimit it (Figure 3 and Figure 4).
2.3. Use of Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and Structure from Motion (SfM) in the Monitoring of Cultural Heritage Restoration Works
2.4. Description of the Different Stages Considered in the Benchmarking Study
- Stage 1 (2015): This is the phase of the studies prior to the restoration project with the aim of preparing a diagnostic study; the building is scanned with a laser scanner in order to graphically record the initial state of the construction elements prior to the drafting of the project, prepare exact planimetries and, from the cloud of points generated, study deformations, detect pathologies, and analyse the structural behaviour that will allow us to hypothesise the situation of the building and the origin of the damage observed.
- Stage 2 (year 2018): During the restoration works, the different phases of the execution of the project are scanned with a laser scanner, demolition of partitions and floors, unloading of vaults... Any change or constructive and structural modification to observe by comparison with the point cloud of phase 1, the changes that the vaults may be suffering. In this phase, we obtain the record of the vaults’ backsides, allowing us to obtain their thickness and study their construction system and structural behaviour. It is not possible to scan the soffit as it is propped up.
- Stage 3: A terrestrial laser scan of the final state of the work after its restoration is carried out. This scan allows us to compare the point clouds of the initial state in Phase 1 and the final state in Phase 3, as well as to have the final geometry of the building. The scan provides information on the soffit of the arches and vaults, and the initial and final state of the arch guidelines can be compared.
2.5. State of Loads in the Different Stages of the Process
- Dead weight of the vault, built with two threads of solid brick taken with lime mortar and rendered on the top and bottom with the same mortar, with an average thickness of 12 cm, and the consideration that the dead weight of a solid brick masonry with lime mortar is 18 KN/m, which results in: Qvault = 0.12 m × 18 KN/m = 2.16 KN/m. A load band is considered in the keystone (Qk), of 2 m for the standard arch and 1.5 m for arch 5. In the salmeres (Qs) is not considered, given that the vault discharges on the former arches and the lateral wall;
- Dead weight of the unidirectional slab resting on the brick masonry in segmental arches, made up of timber beams, beamwork based on solid brick revoltón and hydraulic tile paving on fillings and lime mortar. An average thickness of 15 cm and a density of 18 KN/m has been considered, and for the timber an average density of 8 KN/m, so that we can estimate an initial slab weight of 3.30 KN/m for the initial slab. A constant load band of 5 m is considered for the standard arch and 6 m for arch number 5;
- The dead weight of the 1 foot brickwork (Catalan format with approximately 30 cm of rope) on the segmental arches is Q 5.4 KN/m× h. This load is variable, being minimum on the keystone Q = 5.4 KN/m× 0.25 m = 1.35 KN/m and maximum on the starts Q = 5.4 KN/m× 2 m = 10.8 KN/m, considering the studied points C and S, respectively;
- Self-weight of the rib-arches made of limestone with a cross-section of approximately 0.20 m × 0.40 m would have a uniformly distributed linear load of Q = 0.20 m × 0.40 m × 28 KN/m = 2.24 KN/m, considered constant over the entire arch (Figure 9);
- Overloading of partition walls. The floor above the refectory is very diaphanous, with a partition wall of hollow brick with a thickness of 10 cm, and for this purpose a uniformly distributed linear load of 5 KN/m is considered. This is why this situation is considered to be the standard arch. In arch 5, given its initial situation with less partition walls, a load of 2 KN/m is considered.
2.6. The Stress Response of the Structure by a Simplified Model
3. Discussion of Results
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- Pérez-Álvarez, R.; de Luis-Ruiz, J.M.; Pereda-García, R.; Fernández-Marotoand, G.; Malagón-Picxoxn, B. 3D Documentation with TLS of Caliphal Gate (Ceuta, Spain). Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 5377. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Suchocki, S. Comparison of Time-of-Flight and Phase-Shift TLS Intensity Data for the Diagnostics Measurements of Buildings. Materials 2020, 13, 353. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Dlesk, A.; Uueni, A.; Vach, K. From Analogue to Digital Photogrammetry: Documentation of Padise Abbey in Two Different Time Stages. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 8330. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Barrile, V.; Bilotta, G.; Lamari, D.; Meduri, G.M. Comparison between techniques for generating 3D models of cultural heritage. Recent Adv. Mech. Mechatron. Civ. Chem. Ind. Eng. Math. Comput. Sci. Eng. Ser. 2015, 49, 140–145. [Google Scholar]
- Giuliano, M.G. Cultural Heritage: An example of graphical documentation with automated photogrammetric systems. Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci 2014, XL-5, 251–255. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Kraus, K. Photogrammetry; Dümmler: Bonn, Germany, 1993; Volume 2. [Google Scholar]
- Luhmann, T.; Robson, S.; Kyle, S.; Harley, I. Close Range Photogrammetry; Principles, Techniques and Applications; Chapter 22.214.171.124; Whittles Publishing: Scotland, UK, 2006; pp. 140–141. [Google Scholar]
- Mañana-Borrazás, P.; Rodríguez Paz, A.; Blanco-Rotea, R. Una experiencia en la aplicación del Láser Escáner 3D a los procesos de documentación y análisis del Patrimonio Construido: Su aplicación a Santa Eulalia de Bóveda (Lugo) y San Fiz de Solovio (Santiago de Compostela). Archaeol. Archit. 2008, 5, 15–32. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Vacca, G.; Deidda, M.; Dessi, A.; Marras, M. Laser scanner survey to cultural heritage conservation and restoration. In Proceedings of the International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XXII ISPRS Congress, Melbourne, Australia, 25 August–1 September 2012; Volume XXXIX-B5. [Google Scholar]
- Yastikli, N. Documentation of cultural heritage using digital photogrammetry and laser scanning. J. Cult. Herit. 2007, 8, 423–427. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Nieto, E.; Moyano, J.J.; García, A. Construction study of the palace of children of don Gome (Andújar, Jaen), managed through the HBIM project. Virtual Archeol. Rev. 2019, 10, 84–97. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Massafra, A.; Prati, D.; Predari, G.; Gulli, R. Wooden truss Analysis, Preservation Strategies, and Digital Documentation through Parametric 3D Modeling and HBIM Workflow. Sustainability 2020, 12, 4975. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gámiz-Gordo, A.; Ferrer-Pérez-Blanco, I.; Reinoso-Gordo, J.F. The Pavilions at the Alhambra’s Court of the Lions: Graphic Analysis of Muqarnas. Sustainability 2020, 12, 6556. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chen, S.; Yang, H.; Wangand, S.; Hu, Q. Surveying and Digital Restoration of Towering Architectural Heritage in Harsh Environments: A Case Study of the Millennium Ancient Watchtower in Tibet. Sustainability 2018, 10, 3138. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Fadliand, F.; AlSaeed, M. Digitising Vanishing Architectural Heritage; The Design and Development of Qatar Historic Buildings Information Modeling [Q-HBIM] Platform. Sustainability 2019, 11, 2501. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Alejandro, P.; Franco, C.; Rueda, A.; Plataand, M.D.; Franco, J.C. From the Point Cloud to BIM Methodology for the Ideal Reconstruction of a Lost Bastion of the Cáceres Wall. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 6609. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chudoba, P.; Przewłócki, J.; Samól, P.; Zabuski, L. Optimization of Stabilizing Systems in Protection of Cultural Heritage: The Case of the Historical Retaining Wall in the Wisłoujście Fortress. Sustainability 2020, 12, 8570. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Reinoso-Gordo, J.F.; Rodríguez-Moreno, C.; Gómez-Blanco, A.J.; León-Robles, C. Cultural Heritage Conservation and Sustainability Based on Surveying and Modeling: The Case of the 14th Century Building Corral del Carbón (Granada, Spain). Sustainability 2018, 10, 1370. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Angiolilli, M.; Gregori, A.; Vailati, M. Lime-Based Mortar Reinforced by Randomly Oriented Short Fibers for the Retrofitting of the Historical Masonry Structure. Materials 2020, 13, 3462. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Frigione, M.; Lettieri, M.; Sarcinella, A.; Barroso de Aguiar, J.L. Applications of Sustainable Polymer-Based Phase Change Materials in Mortars Composed by Different Binders. Materials 2019, 12, 3502. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Ramaglia, G.; Fabbrocino, F.; Lignola, G.P.; Prota, A. Unified Theory for Flexural Strengthening of Masonry with Composites. Materials 2019, 12, 680. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Dong, K.; Sui, Z.; Jiang, J.; Zhou, X. Experimental Study on Seismic Behavior of Masonry Walls Strengthened by Reinforced Mortar Cross Strips. Sustainability 2019, 11, 4866. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Wang, G.; Yang, C.; Pan, Y.; Zhu, F.; Jin, K.; Li, K.; Nanni, A. Shear Behaviors of RC Beams Externally Strengthened with Engineered Cementitious Composite Layers. Materials 2019, 12, 2163. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Kociuba, W. Different Paths for Developing Terrestrial LiDAR Data for Comparative Analyses of Topographic Surface Changes. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 7409. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cano, P.; Álvarez, F.L.; Torres, J.C.; del Mar Villafranca, M. Use of 3D laser scanning to record the pre-intervention state of the Fuente de los Leones de La Alhambra. VIrtual Archaeol. Rev. 2010, 1, 89–94. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Huerta, S. Arches, Vaults and Domes. Geometry and Equilibrium in the Traditional Calculation of Masonry Structures; Instituto Juan de Herrera, Escuela Técnica Superior de Arquitectura Madrid: Madrid, Spain, 2004. [Google Scholar]
- Wu, C. Towards Linear-Time Incremental Structure From Motion, 3DV; Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers: Seattle, WA, USA, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Wu, C. VisualSFM: A Visual Structure from Motion System. 2011. Available online: http://ccwu.me/vsfm/5 (accessed on 27 June 2019).
- Agisoft Metashape Professional. Agisoft Metashape Professional Version 1.5.1. Agisoft. 2019. Available online: http://www.agisoft.com. (accessed on 30 July 2020).
- Leon, I.; Pérez, J.J.; Senderos, M. Advanced Techniques for Fast and Accurate Heritage Digitisation in Multiple Case Studies. Sustainability 2020, 12, 6068. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Quagliarini, E.; Clini, P.; Ripanti, M. Fast, low cost and safe methodology for the assessment of the state of conservation of historical buildings from 3D laser scanning: The case study of Santa Maria in Portonovo (Italy). J. Cult. Herit. 2017, 24, 175–183. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pesci, A.; Bonali, E.; Galli, C.; Boschi, E. Laser scanning and digital imaging for the investigation of an ancient building: Palazzo d’Accursio study case (Bologna, Italy). J. Cult. Herit. 2012, 13, 215–220. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Koutsoudis, A.; Vidmar, B.; Ioannakis, G.; Arnaoutoglou, F.; Pavlidis, G.; Chamzas, C. Multi-image 3D reconstruction data evaluation. J. Cult. Herit. 2014, 15, 73–79. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Beltrami, C.D.; Cavezzali, F.; Chiabrando, A.; Iaccarino Idelson, G.; Patrucco, F. Rinaudo. 3D Digital And Physical Reconstruction Of A Collapsed Dome Using Sfm Techniques From Historical Images. Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 2019, XLII-2/W11. Available online: https://d-nb.info/1185647805/34 (accessed on 3 August 2021).
- Loprencipe, G.; Moretti, L.; Ferraro, T.P.R. Railway Freight Transport and Logistics: Methods for Relief, Algorithms for Verification and Proposals for the Adjustment of Tunnel Inner Surfaces. Sustainability 2018, 10, 3145. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Ferrer-Pérez-Blanco, I.; Gámiz-Gordoand, A.; Reinoso-Gordo, J.F. New Drawings of the Alhambra: Deformations of Muqarnas in the Pendentives of the Sala de la Barca. Sustainability 2019, 11, 316. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Blanco, S.; Carrión, B.; Lerma, J.L. Heritage Documentation through Photogrammetric and Laser Scanning Solutions, and Their Orientation to the Generation of Virtual Environments. La Ciencia y el Arte V. Experimental Sciences and Heritage Conservation; Subdirección General de Documentación y Publicaciones: Madrid, Spain, 2015; pp. 56–69. [Google Scholar]
- Ministry of Housing. Basic Document: Structural Safety: Masonry. CTE DB SE-F; Ministry of Housing: Madrid, Spain, 2006.
- Torroja Miret, E. Razón y ser de los Tipos Estructurales; Instituto E. T. de la Construcción y del Cemento: Madrid, Spain, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Beben, D.; Ukleja, J.; Maleska, T.; Anigacz, W. Study on the Restoration of a Masonry Arch Viaduct: Numerical Analysis and Lab Tests. Materials 2020, 13, 1846. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- De la Plata, A.R.M.; Cruz Franco, P.A. A Simulation Study to Calculate a Structure Conceived by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc in 1850 with Finite Element Analysis. Materials 2019, 12, 2576. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Pomares, J.C.; González, A.; Saura, P. Simple and resistant construction built with concrete voussoirs for developing countries. J. Constr. Eng. Manag. 2018, 144, 04018076. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Santiago, H.F. Diseño Estructural de Arcos, Bóvedas y Cúpulas en España c.a. 1500–c.a. 1800. Ph.D. Thesis, Escuela Técnica Superior Arquitectura de Madrid (ETSAM), Madrid, Spain, 1990. [Google Scholar]
- Delbecq, J.M. Analyse de la Stabilite des Ponts en Maconnerie par la Theorie du Calcul a la Ruptura. Ph.D. Thesis, Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, Ecole des Ponts ParisTech París, Paris, France, 1983. [Google Scholar]
- Šekularac, N.; Ristić, N.D.; Mijović, D.; Cvetković, V.; Ivanović-Šekularac, S.B.J. The Use of Natural Stone as an Authentic Building Material for the Restoration of Historic Buildings in Order to Test Sustainable Refurbishment: Case Study. Sustainability 2019, 11, 4009. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Mazzola, E.; Mora, T.D.; Peron, F.; Romagnoni, P. An Integrated Energy and Environmental Audit Process for Historic Buildings. Energies 2019, 12, 3940. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Corradi, M.; Borri, A.; Castori, G.; Coventry, K. Experimental Analysis of Dynamic Effects of FRP Reinforced Masonry Vaults. Materials 2015, 8, 8059–8071. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
|Arches Initial State (STAGE 1)||Loads KN/m||Arc KN/m||Floor Slab KN/m||Partition KN/m||Vault KN/m||Wall KN/m||Total Load KN/m|
|Arches Initial State (STAGE 2)||Loads KN/m||Arc KN/m||Floor Slab KN/m||Partition KN/m||Vault KN/m||Wall KN/m||Total Load KN/m|
|Arches Initial State (STAGE 3)||Loads KN/m||Arc KN/m||Floor Slab KN/m||Partition KN/m||Vault KN/m||Wall KN/m||Total Load KN/m|
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
Saura-Gómez, P.; Spairani-Berrio, Y.; Huesca-Tortosa, J.A.; Spairani-Berrio, S.; Rizo-Maestre, C. Advances in the Restoration of Buildings with LIDAR Technology and 3D Reconstruction: Forged and Vaults of the Refectory of Santo Domingo de Orihuela (16th Century). Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 8541. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188541
Saura-Gómez P, Spairani-Berrio Y, Huesca-Tortosa JA, Spairani-Berrio S, Rizo-Maestre C. Advances in the Restoration of Buildings with LIDAR Technology and 3D Reconstruction: Forged and Vaults of the Refectory of Santo Domingo de Orihuela (16th Century). Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(18):8541. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188541Chicago/Turabian Style
Saura-Gómez, Pascual, Yolanda Spairani-Berrio, Jose Antonio Huesca-Tortosa, Silvia Spairani-Berrio, and Carlos Rizo-Maestre. 2021. "Advances in the Restoration of Buildings with LIDAR Technology and 3D Reconstruction: Forged and Vaults of the Refectory of Santo Domingo de Orihuela (16th Century)" Applied Sciences 11, no. 18: 8541. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188541