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Land Use/Land Cover Change Detection and Urban Sprawl Analysis in the Mount Makiling Forest Reserve Watersheds and Buffer Zone, Philippines

1
Geospatial Integration Division-Resource Data Analysis Branch, National Mapping and Resource Information Authority, Taguig City 1634, Philippines
2
Environmental Science Department, Eastern Samar State University-Salcedo Campus, Salcedo 6807, Eastern Samar, Philippines
3
College of Agriculture, Southern Luzon State University, Lucban 4328, Quezon, Philippines
4
Institute of Computer Science, College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Los Baños 4031, Laguna, Philippines
5
Makiling Center for Mountain Ecosystems, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Los Baños 4031, Laguna, Philippines
6
Environmental Remote Sensing and Geo-information Laboratory, Institute of Renewable Natural Resources, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Los Baños 4031, Laguna, Philippines
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Environments 2019, 6(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments6020009
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 18 November 2018 / Published: 24 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technologies for Sustainable Environmental Systems)
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Abstract

Ecologically Valuable Areas play an important role in providing ecosystem services, however, human activities such as land conversion and urban sprawl pose pressures and threats to these areas. The study assessed the land use/land cover and urban sprawl in the Mount Makiling Forest Reserve (MMFR) Watersheds and Buffer Zone from 1992 to 2015 using remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS). Results showed that the land use/cover within the MMFR buffer zone has changed from 1992 to 2015 with built-up areas increasing by 117% despite Proclamation 1257, s. 1998 which regulates human activities in the zone. Based on the Shannon entropy analysis the land development in the MMFR buffer zone tends to be dispersed and sprawling. However, when the magnitude of change of urban sprawl in the buffer zone from 2002 to 2015 was calculated, a decrease in the entropy value was observed which implies a compacting pattern as the human settlement in the buffer zone increases over time. Proclamation 1257, s. 1998 needs to be strengthened to protect MMFR and its buffer zone from further encroachment and pressure. Moreover, remote sensing and GIS proved to be useful tools for assessing urban sprawl in ecologically valuable areas such as MMFR. View Full-Text
Keywords: ecologically valuable areas; watershed; buffer zone; Mount Makiling Forest Reserve (MMFR), urban sprawl; remote sensing and GIS ecologically valuable areas; watershed; buffer zone; Mount Makiling Forest Reserve (MMFR), urban sprawl; remote sensing and GIS
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Soriano, M.; Hilvano, N.; Garcia, R.; Hao, A.J.; Alegre, A.; Tiburan, Jr., C. Land Use/Land Cover Change Detection and Urban Sprawl Analysis in the Mount Makiling Forest Reserve Watersheds and Buffer Zone, Philippines. Environments 2019, 6, 9.

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