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Behav. Sci., Volume 8, Issue 7 (July 2018) – 5 articles

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13 pages, 1640 KiB  
Article
Temporal Profiles and Dose-Responsiveness of Side Effects with Escitalopram and Duloxetine in Treatment-Naïve Depressed Adults
by Philip E. Polychroniou, Helen S. Mayberg, W. Edward Craighead, Jeffrey J. Rakofsky, Vivianne Aponte Rivera, Ebrahim Haroon and Boadie W. Dunlop
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(7), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8070064 - 17 Jul 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5848
Abstract
Side effect profiles of antidepressants are relevant to treatment selection and adherence among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), but several clinically-relevant characteristics of side effects are poorly understood. We aimed to compare the side effect profiles of escitalopram and duloxetine, including frequencies, [...] Read more.
Side effect profiles of antidepressants are relevant to treatment selection and adherence among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), but several clinically-relevant characteristics of side effects are poorly understood. We aimed to compare the side effect profiles of escitalopram and duloxetine, including frequencies, time to onset, duration, dose responsiveness, and impact on treatment outcomes. Side effects occurring in 211 treatment-naïve patients with MDD randomized to 12 weeks of treatment with flexibly-dosed escitalopram (10–20 mg/day) or duloxetine (30–60 mg/day) as part of the Predictors of Remission in Depression to Individual and Combined Treatments (PReDICT) study were evaluated. Escitalopram- and duloxetine-treated patients experienced a similar mean number of overall side effects and did not differ in terms of the specific side effects observed or their temporal profile. Experiencing any side effect during the first 2 weeks of treatment was associated with increased likelihood of trial completion (86.7% vs. 73.7%, p = 0.045). Duloxetine-treated patients who experienced dry mouth were significantly more likely to achieve remission than those who did not (73.7% vs. 44.8%, p = 0.026). Side effects that resolved prior to a dose increase were unlikely to recur after the increase, but only about 45% of intolerable side effects that required a dose reduction resolved within 30 days of the reduction. At the doses used in this study, escitalopram and duloxetine have similar side effect profiles. Understanding characteristics of side effects beyond simple frequency rates may help prescribers make more informed medication decisions and support conversations with patients to improve treatment adherence. Full article
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12 pages, 1514 KiB  
Article
PerLE: An “Open Source”, ELearning Moodle-Based, Platform. A Study of University Undergraduates’ Acceptance
by Rocco Servidio and Michael Cronin
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(7), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8070063 - 16 Jul 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4605
Abstract
The implementation of innovative eLearning platforms offers numerous benefits, but it is important to understand individual acceptance and use of new technological systems in the educational setting. This study adopts a modified version of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), including three service quality [...] Read more.
The implementation of innovative eLearning platforms offers numerous benefits, but it is important to understand individual acceptance and use of new technological systems in the educational setting. This study adopts a modified version of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), including three service quality constructs as external variables, to assess students’ acceptance of PerLE, a Moodle-based eLearning platform developed at the University of Calabria (Italy). A six-section questionnaire, which was based on previous studies, was administered to 293 undergraduate students. Results show that the quality of online courses is the main construct that affects students’ acceptance of PerLE. We found also that the PerLE user interface was a critical issue, requiring improvements to facilitate ease of use. In addition, the study underlines the important influence of Technical Support as an antecedent to the two main constructs of the TAM: PerLE Usefulness and PerLE Ease of Use. Full article
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12 pages, 1069 KiB  
Article
Gene by Culture Effects on Emotional Processing of Social Cues among East Asians and European Americans
by Arash Javanbakht, Steve Tompson, Shinobu Kitayama, Anthony King, Carolyn Yoon and Israel Liberzon
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(7), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8070062 - 11 Jul 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4379
Abstract
While Western cultures are more focused on individualization and self-expression, East Asian cultures promote interrelatedness. Largely unknown is how gene by culture interactions influence the degree to which individuals acquire culture, and the neurocircuitry underlying how social cues are processed. We sought to [...] Read more.
While Western cultures are more focused on individualization and self-expression, East Asian cultures promote interrelatedness. Largely unknown is how gene by culture interactions influence the degree to which individuals acquire culture, and the neurocircuitry underlying how social cues are processed. We sought to examine the interaction between DRD4 polymorphism and culture in the neural processing of social emotional cues. 19 Asian-born East Asian (AA) and 20 European American (EA) participants performed a shifted attention emotion appraisal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task, which probes implicit emotional processing and regulation in response to social emotional cues. Half of the participants in each group were DRD4 2- or 7-repeat allele (2R/7R) carriers. AA participants showed larger left and right amygdala, and left hippocampal activation during implicit processing of fearful faces. There was a gene by culture interaction in the left insula during implicit processing of facial cues, while activation in EA DRD4 2R/7R carriers was larger than EA non-carriers and AA carriers. Our findings suggest that emotional facial cues are more salient to AA participants and elicit a larger amygdala reaction. Gene by culture interaction finding in insula suggests that DRD4 2R/7R carriers in each culture are more prone to adopting their cultural norm. Full article
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18 pages, 285 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dance Movement Therapy on Adult Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Anna Mastrominico, Thomas Fuchs, Elizabeth Manders, Lena Steffinger, Dusan Hirjak, Maik Sieber, Elisabeth Thomas, Anja Holzinger, Ariane Konrad, Nina Bopp and Sabine C. Koch
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(7), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8070061 - 29 Jun 2018
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 10542
Abstract
This study examines the effects of dance movement therapy (DMT) on empathy for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). DMT based on the embodiment approach offers body-centered interventions, such as mirroring techniques, to address the needs of ASD patients. Accordingly, findings of a [...] Read more.
This study examines the effects of dance movement therapy (DMT) on empathy for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). DMT based on the embodiment approach offers body-centered interventions, such as mirroring techniques, to address the needs of ASD patients. Accordingly, findings of a feasibility study suggest that DMT may be an effective approach for clients on the ASD spectrum. The present study is a randomized controlled trial that was conducted as a multicenter study within the framework of the EU-funded research project TESIS (Toward an Embodied Science of Intersubjectivity), and employed a two-factorial between-subject design. The treatment group (n = 35) participated in a 10-week manualized DMT intervention, whereas the control group (n = 22) received treatment only after a waiting period. Empathy, measured with the Cognitive and Emotional Empathy Questionnaire (CEEQ), was the main variable of interest, analyzed by a repeated measures analysis of variance. In order to also include incomplete data cases, we used the expectation-maximization algorithm for missing data estimation. Results suggest no significant changes in overall empathy between groups. We discuss the results and limitations, as well as future research options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Embodied Aesthetics and Interpersonal Resonance)
10 pages, 212 KiB  
Article
“Good Guys Don’t Rape”: Greek and Non-Greek College Student Perpetrator Rape Myths
by Taylor Martinez, Jacquelyn D. Wiersma-Mosley, Kristen N. Jozkowski and Jennifer Becnel
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(7), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8070060 - 27 Jun 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 10662
Abstract
The current study examined sexual assault perpetrator rape myths among college students, and in particular Greek students. Fraternity men are overrepresented among sexual assault perpetrators, while sorority women are at increased risk for victimization of sexual assault. The current study examined Greek-affiliated and [...] Read more.
The current study examined sexual assault perpetrator rape myths among college students, and in particular Greek students. Fraternity men are overrepresented among sexual assault perpetrators, while sorority women are at increased risk for victimization of sexual assault. The current study examined Greek-affiliated and non-Greek-affiliated perceptions of perpetrator rape myths among 892 college students; 58% of the sample was Greek-affiliated. Men and Greek-affiliated students reported higher agreement on stereotypes than women and non-Greek-affiliated students regarding perpetrator rape myths. Specifically, fraternity men reported higher stereotypical perceptions compared to all women and non-affiliated men, while there was no difference between sorority and non-affiliated women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sexual Violence on College Campus)
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