Previous Issue
Volume 8, September

Table of Contents

Med Sci (Basel), Volume 8, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 5 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessCommunication
Prevalence of Low Back Pain among Nursing Staff in Najran, Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Med Sci (Basel) 2020, 8(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci8040045 - 30 Oct 2020
Viewed by 109
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the various demographic and work-related professional characteristics associated with low back pain among nursing professionals in Najran, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered modified questionnaire (electronic), which included information on general subject demographics and work conditions, was sent through various [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the various demographic and work-related professional characteristics associated with low back pain among nursing professionals in Najran, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered modified questionnaire (electronic), which included information on general subject demographics and work conditions, was sent through various electronic channels to which 187 nurses working across various health institutions in the Najran region responded. Among the included respondents, 35.3% were Saudis, 64.7% were Non-Saudis, and 88.8% were in the young to middle-age group (21–40 years). Similarly, 57.8% were females, while a majority (91%) had completed a bachelor’s degree. In total, 140 respondents (74.8%) reported experiencing low back pain. Among the various work-related factors, gender, place of work, nature of work, and direct contact hours with patients per week were found to be significantly associated with low back pain. Assessment of pain characteristics found that a majority (88.2%) had mild to moderate localized back pain. A significant number of nursing professionals included herein reported to have low back pain, which appeared to be moderated by work-related characteristics, including place and nature of work. Our findings can help to establish policies and interventions aimed at reducing the risk and onset of low back pain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nursing Research)
Open AccessArticle
Treatment of C3 Glomerulopathy in Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review
Med Sci (Basel) 2020, 8(4), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci8040044 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 241
Abstract
Background: C3 glomerulopathy (C3G), a rare glomerular disease mediated by alternative complement pathway dysregulation, is associated with a high rate of recurrence and graft loss after kidney transplantation (KTx). We aimed to assess the efficacy of different treatments for C3G recurrence after KTx. [...] Read more.
Background: C3 glomerulopathy (C3G), a rare glomerular disease mediated by alternative complement pathway dysregulation, is associated with a high rate of recurrence and graft loss after kidney transplantation (KTx). We aimed to assess the efficacy of different treatments for C3G recurrence after KTx. Methods: Databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database) were searched from inception through 3 May, 2019. Studies were included that reported outcomes of adult KTx recipients with C3G. Effect estimates from individual studies were combined using the random-effects, generic inverse variance method of DerSimonian and Laird., The protocol for this meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO (no. CRD42019125718). Results: Twelve studies (7 cohort studies and 5 case series) consisting of 122 KTx patients with C3G (73 C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN) and 49 dense deposit disease (DDD)) were included. The pooled estimated rates of allograft loss among KTx patients with C3G were 33% (95% CI: 12–57%) after eculizumab, 42% (95% CI: 2–89%) after therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), and 81% (95% CI: 50–100%) after rituximab. Subgroup analysis based on type of C3G was performed. Pooled estimated rates of allograft loss in C3GN KTx patients were 22% (95% CI: 5–46%) after eculizumab, 56% (95% CI: 6–100%) after TPE, and 70% (95% CI: 24–100%) after rituximab. Pooled estimated rates of allograft loss in DDD KTx patients were 53% (95% CI: 0–100%) after eculizumab. Data on allograft loss in DDD after TPE (1 case series, 0/2 (0%) allograft loss at 6 months) and rituximab (1 cohort, 3/3 (100%) allograft loss) were limited. Among 66 patients (38 C3GN, 28 DDD) who received no treatment (due to stable allograft function at presentation and/or clinical judgment of physicians), pooled estimated rates of allograft loss were 32% (95% CI: 7–64%) and 53% (95% CI: 28–77%) for C3GN and DDD, respectively. Among treated C3G patients, data on soluble membrane attack complex of complement (sMAC) were limited to patients treated with eculizumab (N = 7). 80% of patients with elevated sMAC before eculizumab responded to treatment. In addition, all patients who responded to eculizumab had normal sMAC levels after post-eculizumab. Conclusions: Our study suggests that the lowest incidence of allograft loss (33%) among KTX patients with C3G are those treated with eculizumab. Among those who received no treatment for C3G due to stable allograft function, there is a high incidence of allograft loss of 32% in C3GN and 53% in DDD. sMAC level may help to select good responders to eculizumab. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nephrology and Urology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Mechanisms Underlying the Inhibition of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor-Induced Anorexia and Fatigue by Royal Jelly in Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients and the Correlation between Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor and Inflammatory Mediators
Med Sci (Basel) 2020, 8(4), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci8040043 - 09 Oct 2020
Viewed by 262
Abstract
Inflammation is a common adverse event of anti-cancer therapy. Royal jelly (RJ) modulates inflammation by regulating the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and interleukin (IL)-6 produced by macrophages. Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a crucial regulator of [...] Read more.
Inflammation is a common adverse event of anti-cancer therapy. Royal jelly (RJ) modulates inflammation by regulating the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and interleukin (IL)-6 produced by macrophages. Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a crucial regulator of macrophage activities, and we hypothesized that RJ alters M-CSF levels. In this randomized controlled trial, we investigated the association between M-CSF and adverse events in renal cell carcinoma patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) after an oral intake of RJ (n = 16) or placebo (n = 17). The serum levels of M-CSF, TNF-α, TGF-β, and IL-6 were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and their temporal changes and correlation between such changes were analyzed. The post-/pretreatment ratio of M-CSF levels was associated with anorexia after 2 weeks and fatigue after 2, 4, and 12 weeks. The M-CSF level in the RJ group was higher than that in the placebo group at the same timepoints. The TNF-α level in the RJ group was lower than that in the placebo group between 6 and 12 weeks, and the TGF-β level in the RJ group was higher than that in the placebo group; however, contrasting findings were detected after 12 weeks. Additionally, the M-CSF level was significantly correlated with the TGF-β level after 4 weeks and IL-6 level after 8 and 10 weeks. Among TNF-α, TGF-β, and IL-6, the post-/pretreatment ratio of TGF-β after 12 weeks was associated with TKI-induced anorexia, and the ratios after 10 and 12 weeks were associated with fatigue. Our results demonstrated that an oral intake of RJ suppressed anorexia and fatigue via complex mechanisms associated with inflammation-related factors, such as M-CSF and TGF-β in renal cell carcinoma patients treated with TKIs. In addition, we newly found that such RJ-related effects were dependent on the treatment duration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer and Cancer-Related Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Artificial Neural Network as a Tool to Predict Facial Nerve Palsy in Parotid Gland Surgery for Benign Tumors
Med Sci (Basel) 2020, 8(4), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci8040042 - 07 Oct 2020
Viewed by 315
Abstract
(1) Background: Despite the increasing use of intraoperative facial nerve monitoring during parotid gland surgery or the improvement in the preoperative radiological assessment, facial nerve injury (FNI) continues to be the most feared complication; (2) Methods: patients who underwent parotid gland surgery for [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Despite the increasing use of intraoperative facial nerve monitoring during parotid gland surgery or the improvement in the preoperative radiological assessment, facial nerve injury (FNI) continues to be the most feared complication; (2) Methods: patients who underwent parotid gland surgery for benign tumors between June 2010 and June 2019 were included in this study aiming to make a proof of concept about the reliability of an artificial neural networks (AAN) algorithm for prediction of FNI and compared with a multivariate linear regression (MLR); (3) Results: Concerning prediction accuracy and performance, the ANN achieved the highest sensitivity (86.53% vs 46.23%), specificity (95.67% vs 92.59%), PPV (87.28% vs 66.94%), NPV (95.68% vs 83.37%), ROC–AUC (0.960 vs 0.769) and accuracy (93.42 vs 80.42) than MLR; and (4) Conclusions: ANN prediction models can be useful for otolaryngologists—head and neck surgeons—and patients to provide evidence-based predictions about the risk of FNI. As an advantage, the possibility to develop a calculator using clinical, radiological and histological or cytological information can improve our ability to generate patients counselling before surgery. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Treatment of Swine Closed Head Injury with Perfluorocarbon NVX-428
Med Sci (Basel) 2020, 8(4), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci8040041 - 27 Sep 2020
Viewed by 272
Abstract
Pre-hospital treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) with co-existing polytrauma is complicated by requirements for intravenous fluid volume vs. hypotensive resuscitation. A low volume, small particle-size-oxygen-carrier perfluorocarbon emulsion NVX-428 (dodecafluoropentane emulsion; 2% w/v) could improve brain tissue with minimal additional fluid [...] Read more.
Pre-hospital treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) with co-existing polytrauma is complicated by requirements for intravenous fluid volume vs. hypotensive resuscitation. A low volume, small particle-size-oxygen-carrier perfluorocarbon emulsion NVX-428 (dodecafluoropentane emulsion; 2% w/v) could improve brain tissue with minimal additional fluid volume. This study examined whether the oxygen-carrier NVX-428 shows safety and efficacy for pre-hospital treatment of TBI. Anesthetized swine underwent fluid percussion injury TBI and received 1 mL/kg IV NVX-428 (TBI-NVX) at 15 min (T15) or normal saline (no-treatment) (TBI-NON). Similarly, uninjured swine received NVX-428 (SHAM-NVX) or normal saline (SHAM-NON). Animals were monitored and measurements were taken for physiological and neurological parameters before euthanasia at the six-hour mark (T360). Histopathological analysis was performed on paraffin embedded tissues. Physiological, biochemical and blood gas parameters were not different, with the exception of a significant but transient increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure observed in the TBI-experimental group immediately after drug administration. There were no initial differences in brain oxygenation at baseline, but over time oxygen decreased ~50% in both TBI groups. Histological brain injury scores were similar between TBI-NVX and TBI-NON, although a number of subcategories (spongiosis-ischemic/dead neurons-hemorrhage-edema) in TBI-NVX had a tendency for lower scores. The cerebellum showed significantly lower spongiosis and ischemic/dead neuron injury scores and a lower number of Fluoro-Jade-B-positive cerebellar-Purkinje-cells after NVX-428 treatment compared to controls. NVX-428 may assist in mitigating secondary cellular brain damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neurosciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop