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Med. Sci., Volume 7, Issue 11 (November 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) In the United States, lead naturally exists in the environment at low concentrations, but the [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Antibiotic Resistance and Factors Affecting Carriage of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Pediatric Population of Enugu Metropolis, Nigeria
Med. Sci. 2019, 7(11), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci7110104 - 17 Nov 2019
Abstract
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms have become a serious challenge in healthcare delivery globally. The prevalence of ESBL carriage in healthy and sick children in Enugu, Nigeria, was bacteriologically investigated in this study. Four hundred and twenty-two biological samples (mid-stream urine and feces) were [...] Read more.
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms have become a serious challenge in healthcare delivery globally. The prevalence of ESBL carriage in healthy and sick children in Enugu, Nigeria, was bacteriologically investigated in this study. Four hundred and twenty-two biological samples (mid-stream urine and feces) were bacteriologically analyzed. The isolates were screened for ESBL production using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints. The suspected ESBL producers were confirmed using double disc synergy test method. Out of the 162 isolates screened, 32 (19.8%) were confirmed as ESBL positive, with a prevalence of 25.32% among sick children in Enugu State University Teaching Hospital (ESUTH), Parklane, Enugu and 13.89% in apparently healthy children in a community setting. Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli had the highest prevalence of 34.6% and 28.6%, respectively; Citrobacter spp. and Enterobacter spp. were 18.2% and 16.7%, respectively. The ESBL positive isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (100%), tetracycline (100%), kanamycin (96.9%), nitrofurantoin (84.4%), ciprofloxacin (68.6%), and chloramphenicol (62.5%) but susceptible to meropenem (100%), colistin (56.3%), and gentamicin (50%). Klebsiella spp. had the highest ESBL occurrence among sick children while E. coli had the highest ESBL occurrence among healthy children in Enugu. All ESBL-positive isolates were multiply resistant to conventional antibiotics. The emergence and spread of β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in hospital and community environments highlight the possibility for an infection outbreak if not checked. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Lead Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease among Young and Middle-Aged Adults
Med. Sci. 2019, 7(11), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci7110103 - 06 Nov 2019
Abstract
Lead and its effects on cardiovascular-related markers were explored in this cross-sectional study of young adults (18–44 years) and middle-aged adults (45–65 years) from the United States using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2009–2016. Degrees of exposure were created using [...] Read more.
Lead and its effects on cardiovascular-related markers were explored in this cross-sectional study of young adults (18–44 years) and middle-aged adults (45–65 years) from the United States using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2009–2016. Degrees of exposure were created using blood lead level (BLL) as the biomarker of exposure based on the epidemiologically relevant threshold of BLL > 5 μg/dL. The mean values, in addition to the percentages of people represented for the markers of interest (systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], gamma-glutamyl transferase [GGT], non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [non-HDL-C]) were explored. Among those exposed to lead, the likelihood of elevated clinical markers (as defined by clinically relevant thresholds of above normal) were examined using binary logistic regression. In exploring exposure at the 5 μg/dL levels, there were significant differences in all the mean variables of interest between young and middle-aged adults. The binary logistic regression showed young and middle-aged adults exposed to lead were significantly more likely to have elevated markers (apart from DBP). In all, lead affects cardiovascular-related markers in young and middle-aged U.S. adults and thus we must continue to monitor lead exposure to promote health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Disease)
Open AccessReview
Premature Ejaculation: Aetiology and Treatment Strategies
Med. Sci. 2019, 7(11), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci7110102 - 25 Oct 2019
Abstract
Premature ejaculation (PE) is a highly prevalent male sexual dysfunction that is often neglected, presenting a currently unmet therapeutic need. The classification of PE has historically been varied and at times ambiguous, contributing to inaccurate prevalence estimates. This review uses the International Society [...] Read more.
Premature ejaculation (PE) is a highly prevalent male sexual dysfunction that is often neglected, presenting a currently unmet therapeutic need. The classification of PE has historically been varied and at times ambiguous, contributing to inaccurate prevalence estimates. This review uses the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) definition of PE, which includes reduced ejaculatory latency, lack of control and associated negative personal consequences. Patient assessment and management options differ depending on the classification of PE and it is the role of the clinician to appropriately classify patients and be aware of the correct management strategies. This review provides an overall background of PE in terms of classification and underlying physiology, patient assessment and management strategies along with the scientific rationale for treatment. Patients with lifelong and acquired PE are most likely to benefit from combination therapy of pharmacological treatment in the form of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor dapoxetine, psychosexual behavioural therapy and psychological therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Men's Sexual Health)
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