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Med. Sci., Volume 7, Issue 10 (October 2019)
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Cover Story (view full-size image) Esophageal cancer (EC) is among the most frequent and deadly cancers around the world. Fortunately, [...] Read more. Esophageal cancer (EC) is among the most frequent and deadly cancers around the world. Fortunately, two targeted therapies and an immunotherapy agent have been recently approved by the FDA for metastatic ECs. PD1 inhibitor pembrolizumab has received approvals for later line treatment of both types of EC: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Ramucirumab, an antibody targeting VEGF and HER2/neu receptors, has been approved for refractory adenocarcinoma, while the anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab has been approved as front-line treatment for the 20% of cases that are HER2-positive. Although these therapies have improved survival for PDL1- and-HER2/neu positive patients, the survival rates remain low for metastatic EC, necessitating the development of further targeted treatment options. View this paper.