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Med. Sci., Volume 7, Issue 10 (October 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Esophageal cancer (EC) is among the most frequent and deadly cancers around the world. Fortunately, [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescence
Med. Sci. 2019, 7(10), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci7100101 - 02 Oct 2019
Viewed by 335
Abstract
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in females, and is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovarian morphology based on ultrasound. Controversy surrounds the optimum diagnosis and management in the adolescent population. Many patients with adult [...] Read more.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in females, and is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovarian morphology based on ultrasound. Controversy surrounds the optimum diagnosis and management in the adolescent population. Many patients with adult PCOS present with pathognomonic symptoms as adolescents, and there is value in early diagnosis due to the associated long-term metabolic and reproductive health sequalae. A definitive diagnosis does not need to be made prior to implementing treatment in this group of young women. The practitioner who has an adolescent presenting with signs and symptoms of PCOS, has a unique opportunity to risk stratify, screen for co-morbidities, and implement early management strategies, many of which are lifestyle modifications, to help prevent long term morbidity associated with this disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polycystic Ovary Syndrome)
Open AccessReview
Targeted Therapies and Immunotherapies in the Treatment of Esophageal Cancers
Med. Sci. 2019, 7(10), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci7100100 - 26 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Esophageal cancer (EC) is among the most frequent and deadly cancers around the world. While esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has one of the fastest-growing incidences amongst cancers in the US, it also has one of the lowest survival rates due to the limited effective [...] Read more.
Esophageal cancer (EC) is among the most frequent and deadly cancers around the world. While esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has one of the fastest-growing incidences amongst cancers in the US, it also has one of the lowest survival rates due to the limited effective treatment options. Fortunately, in the past decade, two targeted therapies and an immunotherapy agent have been approved by the FDA for metastatic EAC and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), with several more currently being considered for approval. In terms of immunotherapies, in July 2019, the FDA approved the PD1 inhibitor pembrolizumab for second-line treatment of PDL1-positive, advanced or metastatic ESCC. Two years before, pembrolizumab had been approved for the third-line treatment of PDL1-positive EAC. The PD1 inhibitor nivolumab, which was found in one study to outperform chemotherapy irrespective of PDL1 status, has yet to secure FDA approval. In terms of targeted therapies, although as many as 90% of EC cases show upregulated EGFR, anti-EGFR therapy has not been shown to improve survival. Ramucirumab, an antibody targeting both VEGF and HER2/neu receptors, has been approved for the treatment of refractory EAC, while the anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) trastuzumab has been approved as front-line treatment for HER2-positive cases which account for approximately 20% of ECs. Although these targeted therapies and immunotherapies have resulted in significant improvements in survival for specific patient populations that are positive for certain biomarkers, such as PDL1 and HER2/neu, the survival rates remain low for a large proportion of the metastatic EC patient population, necessitating the development of further targeted treatment options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer and Cancer-Related Research)
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Open AccessReview
Non-Analgesic Symptomatic or Disease—Modifying Potential of TRPA1
Med. Sci. 2019, 7(10), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci7100099 - 23 Sep 2019
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Abstract
TRPA1, a versatile ion channel of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channel family, detects a large variety of chemicals and can contribute to signal processing of other stimuli, e.g., due to its sensitivity to cytosolic calcium elevation or phosphoinositolphosphate modulation. At first, TRPA1 [...] Read more.
TRPA1, a versatile ion channel of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channel family, detects a large variety of chemicals and can contribute to signal processing of other stimuli, e.g., due to its sensitivity to cytosolic calcium elevation or phosphoinositolphosphate modulation. At first, TRPA1 was found on sensory neurons, where it can act as a sensor for potential or actual tissue damage that ultimately may elicit pain or itch as warning symptoms. This review provides an update regarding the analgesic and antipruritic potential of TRPA1 modulation and the respective clinical trials. Furthermore, TRPA1 has been found in an increasing amount of other cell types. Therefore, the main focus of the review is to discuss the non-analgesic and particularly the disease-modifying potential of TRPA1. This includes diseases of the respiratory system, cancer, ischemia, allergy, diabetes, and the gastrointestinal system. The involvement of TRPA1 in the respective pathophysiological cascades is so far mainly based on pre-clinical data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeting TRP Channels: from Drug Development to Clinical Trials)
Open AccessReview
Sexuality in Ageing Male: Review of Pathophysiology and Treatment Strategies for Various Male Sexual Dysfunctions
Med. Sci. 2019, 7(10), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci7100098 - 20 Sep 2019
Viewed by 335
Abstract
Sexual function among older men is often thought to decrease as part of normal ageing biology despite the fact that sexuality remains an important issue in the elderly. Sexual dysfunction in the aged male is likely multifactorial in nature, with the development and/or [...] Read more.
Sexual function among older men is often thought to decrease as part of normal ageing biology despite the fact that sexuality remains an important issue in the elderly. Sexual dysfunction in the aged male is likely multifactorial in nature, with the development and/or progression of medical comorbidities often resulting in decline in male sexual function and poor treatment response. At present, sexual dysfunction in the ageing male is poorly investigated and understood, and current treatment strategies aim at improving sexual desire and erectile function with limited data on ejaculatory and orgasmic dysfunctions. In addition, men are often reticent to seek help for health concerns including sexual dysfunction. The following article provides a narrative review of strategies to address various aspects of sexual dysfunction in the ageing male. Clinicians need to be educated to be sensitive when discussing sexuality issues among older men and to present practical solutions that take into account individual and cultural differences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Men's Sexual Health)
Open AccessArticle
Compliance and Treatment Outcomes of Various Regimens for Trichomoniasis in Trinidad and Tobago
Med. Sci. 2019, 7(10), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci7100097 - 20 Sep 2019
Viewed by 263
Abstract
Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) globally and yet is not a reportable disease. Trichomonas vaginalis is an important source of reproductive morbidity and may increase risk of acquisition and transmission of human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV). The World Health [...] Read more.
Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) globally and yet is not a reportable disease. Trichomonas vaginalis is an important source of reproductive morbidity and may increase risk of acquisition and transmission of human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV). The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Control Disease Center (CDC) recommend various regimens of nitroimidazole s for treatment. The common nitroimidazoles used for trichomoniasis are metronidazole and tinidazole, which vary in their cost, efficacy, and side effect profile. It is relevant to study these factors for better management of the patients. This study aimed to compare and study the efficacy, compliance of various treatment regimens, their outcomes, and side-effects for trichomoniasis, among STI clinic attendees in Trinidad. A clinical trial study was designed, and after obtaining the informed consent, a routine clinical examination was conducted and the swabs for trichomoniasis tests were collected for diagnosis from the 692 participants. Out of 692 participants, 82 patients with positive diagnosis of Trichomonas infection were treated according to the patient’s choice, using different drug regimens. Compliance to treatment, side effects, and outcome were evaluated. The prevalence of trichomoniasis in the population attending our STI clinic is 11.9% and prevalence of HIV is 9%. Of the total 82 participants for the treatment, 80% were females; nearly 90% of the patients belonged to age group 15–45 years, and over 60% were below 30 years. Among those diagnosed for Trichomonas vaginalis, 14.6% had coexistent HIV infection. The compliance with respect to single dose treatment was significantly better than the long-duration oral regimen and has a significant relation with side effects of the treatment. The outcome is generally better and comparable and shows no significant difference between different treatment regimens used in the study. Metronidazole and tinidazole are commonly used drugs in various regimens. Compliance is better with those treated with tinidazole and metronidazole single dose than with other groups. Outcome is comparable between these regimens, especially when combined with other important factors like abstinence and treatment of the partners. The treatment regimens mainly differed in the compliance side effects profile and duration of therapy, which suggests that to improve the compliance of the drugs with fewer side effects, short course regimen would be a preferred choice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Immunology and Infectious Diseases)
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