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Twinning Strains in Synfolding Calcite, Proterozoic Sinian System, China

Geology Department, Macalester College, St. Paul, MN 55105, USA
State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources and Key Laboratory of Lithosphere Tectonics, China University of Geosciences, 29 Xueyuan Rd., Beijing 100083, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Geosciences 2018, 8(4), 131;
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 2 April 2018 / Accepted: 6 April 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
PDF [45433 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]


Synfolding calcite was precipitated between layers of Neoproterozoic sandy dolomite and striated parallel to the fold axis of an open anticline with a shallow plunge during folding. The fold had limb dips of 45° and plunged 20° to the south. The synfolding calcite had sub-horizontal grooves that trended parallel to the fold. Limb-hinge-limb calcite samples (3 samples; n = 100 grains) preserved a layer-parallel shortening strain that trended at an acute (45°) angle to the trend of the fold axis and fold lineations. Extension axes were vertical and there was no strain overprint (low NEVs). Shortening strain magnitudes were −2.9% and the differential stress responsible for twinning was −38 MPa. The commonly observed structures were layer-parallel slip striations normal to the fold axis: sub-horizontal interlayer slip surfaces parallel to a fold axis (parallel to bedding strike) were unreported; as was a sub-horizontal shortening strain at an acute angle to the axis of a plunging fold. View Full-Text
Keywords: structural geology; folding dynamics; strain analysis structural geology; folding dynamics; strain analysis

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Craddock, J.P.; Liu, J.; Zheng, Y. Twinning Strains in Synfolding Calcite, Proterozoic Sinian System, China. Geosciences 2018, 8, 131.

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