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Biofilm Specific Activity: A Measure to Quantify Microbial Biofilm

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences–Microbiology, University of Perugia, 06123 Perugia, Italy
2
First Division of Infectious Diseases, Cotugno Hospital, 80181 Naples, Italy
3
CEMIN-Excellence Research Center, University of Perugia, 06123 Perugia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(3), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7030073
Received: 4 February 2019 / Revised: 23 February 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 7 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Microbiology)
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Abstract

Microbes growing onto solid surfaces form complex 3-D biofilm structures characterized by the production of extracellular polymeric compounds and an increased resistance to drugs. The quantification of biofilm relays currently on a number of different approaches and techniques, often leading to different evaluations of the ability to form biofilms of the studied microbial strains. Measures of biofilm biomass were carried out with crystal violet (CV) and a direct reading at 405 nm, whereas the activity was assessed with the XTT ((2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide) method. The strains of four pathogenic species of the genus Candida (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis) and of Staphylococcus aureus were employed to determine the effective relatedness among techniques and the specific activity of the biofilm, as a ratio between the XTT and the CV outcomes. Since the ability to form biomass and to be metabolically active are not highly related, their simultaneous use allowed for a categorization of the strains. This classification is putatively amenable of further study by comparing the biofilm type and the medical behavior of the strains. View Full-Text
Keywords: biofilm; Candida spp.; Staphylococcus aureus; quantification; crystal violet; 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) biofilm; Candida spp.; Staphylococcus aureus; quantification; crystal violet; 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Corte, L.; Casagrande Pierantoni, D.; Tascini, C.; Roscini, L.; Cardinali, G. Biofilm Specific Activity: A Measure to Quantify Microbial Biofilm. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 73.

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