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Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance in Serratia spp. and Citrobacter spp. Isolates from Companion Animals in Japan: Nosocomial Dissemination of Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Citrobacter freundii

1
Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8553, Japan
2
Anicom Specialty Medical Institute Inc., Kanagawa 231-0033, Japan
3
Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8553, Japan
4
Miyamoto Animal Hospital, Yamaguchi 753-0851, Japan
5
Sanritsu Zelkova Laboratory, Tokyo 135-0011, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7030064
Received: 21 January 2019 / Revised: 27 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens)
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Abstract

In many countries including Japan, the status of emerging antimicrobial resistance among Serratia spp. and Citrobacter spp. in companion animals remains unknown because these genera are rarely isolated from animals. In this study, 30 Serratia spp. and 23 Citrobacter spp. isolates from companion animals underwent susceptibility testing for 10 antimicrobials. Phenotypic and genetic approaches were used to identify the mechanisms of extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC). Subsequently, ESC-resistant Citrobacter spp. strains underwent multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). A significantly higher rate (34.8%) of ESC resistance was observed in Citrobacter spp. isolates than in Serratia spp. isolates (0%). ESC resistance was detected in five C. freundii strains, two C. portucalensis strains, and one C. koseri strain. All of the ESC-resistant Citrobacter spp. strains harbored CMY-type and/or DHA-type AmpC β-lactamases. Three C. freundii strains harbored the CTX-M-3-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases. Notably, the three blaCTX-3-producing and two blaCMY-117-bearing C. freundii strains (obtained from different patients in one hospital) had the same sequence type (ST156 and ST18, respectively) and similar PFGE profiles. We believe that ESC-resistant Citrobacter spp. are important nosocomial pathogens in veterinary medicine. Therefore, infection control in animal hospitals is essential to prevent dissemination of these resistant pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: Serratia spp.; Citrobacter spp.; companion animals; extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance; nosocomial dissemination Serratia spp.; Citrobacter spp.; companion animals; extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance; nosocomial dissemination
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Harada, K.; Shimizu, T.; Ozaki, H.; Kimura, Y.; Miyamoto, T.; Tsuyuki, Y. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance in Serratia spp. and Citrobacter spp. Isolates from Companion Animals in Japan: Nosocomial Dissemination of Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Citrobacter freundii. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 64.

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