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Microorganisms 2018, 6(3), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms6030085

New 19-Residue Peptaibols from Trichoderma Clade Viride

1
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, Közép fasor 52, H-6726 Szeged, Hungary
2
Doctoral School in Biology, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, H-6726 Szeged, Hungary
3
Faculty of Environmental Protection, Educons University, Vojvode Putnika 87, 21208 Sremska Kamenica, Serbia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 7 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 12 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Proteins in Filamentous Fungi)
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Abstract

Trichoderma koningiopsis and T. gamsii belong to clade Viride of Trichoderma, the largest and most diverse group of this genus. They produce a wide range of bioactive secondary metabolites, including peptaibols with antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. The unusual amino acid residues of peptaibols, i.e., α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib), isovaline (Iva), and the C-terminal 1,2-amino alcohol make them unique among peptides. In this study, the peptaibiomes of T. koningiopsis and T. gamsii were investigated by HPLC-ESI-MS. The examined strains appeared to produce 19-residue peptaibols, most of which are unknown from literature, but their amino acid sequences are similar to those of trikoningins, tricholongins, trichostrigocins, trichorzianins, and trichorzins. A new group of peptaibols detected in T. koningiopsis are described here under the name “Koningiopsin”. Trikoningin KA V, the closest peptaibol compound to the peptaibols produced by these two strains, was selected for structural investigation by short MD simulation, which revealed that many residues show high preference for left handed helix formation. The bioactivity of the peptaibol mixtures produced by T. koningiopsis and T. gamsii was tested on agar plates against bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi. The results revealed characteristic differences in bioactivities towards the different groups of target microorganisms, which can be explained with the differences in their cell wall structures. View Full-Text
Keywords: Trichoderma; Viride clade; peptaibol; liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry; bioactivity Trichoderma; Viride clade; peptaibol; liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry; bioactivity
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Marik, T.; Tyagi, C.; Racić, G.; Rakk, D.; Szekeres, A.; Vágvölgyi, C.; Kredics, L. New 19-Residue Peptaibols from Trichoderma Clade Viride. Microorganisms 2018, 6, 85.

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