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Article

Prevalence, Genetic Diversity and Factors Associated with Distribution of Listeria monocytogenes and Other Listeria spp. in Cattle Farms in Latvia

1
Institute of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, LV-3004 Jelgava, Latvia
2
Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment “BIOR”, LV-1076 Rīga, Latvia
3
Faculty of Biology, University of Latvia, LV-1004 Rīga, Latvia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Janet R. Donaldson
Pathogens 2021, 10(7), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10070851
Received: 24 May 2021 / Revised: 27 June 2021 / Accepted: 1 July 2021 / Published: 6 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Listeria monocytogenes Pathogenesis)
Listeria spp. is a diverse genus of Gram-positive bacteria commonly present in the environment while L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii are well known human and ruminant pathogens. The aim of the present study was to reveal the prevalence and genetic diversity of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. and to identify the factors related to the abundance of pathogen at cattle farms. A total of 521 animal and environmental samples from 27 meat and dairy cattle farms were investigated and the genetic diversity of L. monocytogenes isolates was studied with WGS. The prevalence of Listeria was 58.9%, while of L. monocytogenes it was −11%. The highest prevalence of L. monocytogenes was found in the environment—soil samples near to manure storage (93%), mixed feed from the feeding trough and hay (29%), water samples from farms drinking trough (28%) and cattle feces (28%). Clonal complexes (CC) of CC37 (30%), CC11 (20%) and CC18 (17%) (all IIa serogroup) were predominant L. monocytogenes clones. CC18, CC37 and CC8 were isolated from case farms and CC37, CC11 and CC18 from farms without listeriosis history. Only one hypervirulent CC4 (1%) was isolated from the case farm. Sequence types (STs) were not associated with the isolation source, except for ST7, which was significantly associated with soil (p < 0.05). The contamination of soil, feeding tables and troughs with L. monocytogenes was associated with an increased prevalence of L. monocytogenes at farms. Our study indicates the importance of hygienic practice in the prevention of the dissemination of L. monocytogenes in the cattle farm environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: serogroups; clonal complexes; feed; soil; water; feces; epidemiology; WGS; Latvia serogroups; clonal complexes; feed; soil; water; feces; epidemiology; WGS; Latvia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Terentjeva, M.; Šteingolde, Ž.; Meistere, I.; Elferts, D.; Avsejenko, J.; Streikiša, M.; Gradovska, S.; Alksne, L.; Ķibilds, J.; Bērziņš, A. Prevalence, Genetic Diversity and Factors Associated with Distribution of Listeria monocytogenes and Other Listeria spp. in Cattle Farms in Latvia. Pathogens 2021, 10, 851. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10070851

AMA Style

Terentjeva M, Šteingolde Ž, Meistere I, Elferts D, Avsejenko J, Streikiša M, Gradovska S, Alksne L, Ķibilds J, Bērziņš A. Prevalence, Genetic Diversity and Factors Associated with Distribution of Listeria monocytogenes and Other Listeria spp. in Cattle Farms in Latvia. Pathogens. 2021; 10(7):851. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10070851

Chicago/Turabian Style

Terentjeva, Margarita, Žanete Šteingolde, Irēna Meistere, Didzis Elferts, Jeļena Avsejenko, Madara Streikiša, Silva Gradovska, Laura Alksne, Juris Ķibilds, and Aivars Bērziņš. 2021. "Prevalence, Genetic Diversity and Factors Associated with Distribution of Listeria monocytogenes and Other Listeria spp. in Cattle Farms in Latvia" Pathogens 10, no. 7: 851. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10070851

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