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Metals 2018, 8(4), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8040269

An Incremental Physically-Based Model of P91 Steel Flow Behaviour for the Numerical Analysis of Hot-Working Processes

1
Department of Mechanics, Design and Industrial Management, University of Deusto, Avda Universidades 24, 48007 Bilbao, Spain
2
University Valenciennes, CNRS, LAMIH UMR 8201, F-59313 Valenciennes, France
3
School of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Postal Address 47885, Los Chaguaramos, Caracas 1040, Venezuela
4
Venezuelan National Academy for Engineering and Habitat, Palacio de las Academias, Postal Address 1723, Caracas 1010, Venezuela
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 14 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constitutive Modelling for Metals)
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Abstract

This paper is aimed at modelling the flow behaviour of P91 steel at high temperature and a wide range of strain rates for constant and also variable strain-rate deformation conditions, such as those in real hot-working processes. For this purpose, an incremental physically-based model is proposed for the P91 steel flow behavior. This formulation considers the effects of dynamic recovery (DRV) and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) on the mechanical properties of the material, using only the flow stress, strain rate and temperature as state variables and not the accumulated strain. Therefore, it reproduces accurately the flow stress, work hardening and work softening not only under constant, but also under transient deformation conditions. To accomplish this study, the material is characterised experimentally by means of uniaxial compression tests, conducted at a temperature range of 900–1270 °C and at strain rates in the range of 0.005–10 s−1. Finally, the proposed model is implemented in commercial finite element (FE) software to provide evidence of the performance of the proposed formulation. The experimental compression tests are simulated using the novel model and the well-known Hansel–Spittel formulation. In conclusion, the incremental physically-based model shows accurate results when work softening is present, especially under variable strain-rate deformation conditions. Hence, the present formulation is appropriate for the simulation of the hot-working processes typically conducted at industrial scale. View Full-Text
Keywords: P91 steel; mechanical characterization; incremental constitutive law; transient deformation conditions; FEM P91 steel; mechanical characterization; incremental constitutive law; transient deformation conditions; FEM
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Murillo-Marrodán, A.; Puchi-Cabrera, E.S.; García, E.; Dubar, M.; Cortés, F.; Dubar, L. An Incremental Physically-Based Model of P91 Steel Flow Behaviour for the Numerical Analysis of Hot-Working Processes. Metals 2018, 8, 269.

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