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Societies, Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2015) , Pages 566-685

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Open AccessArticle Changing the Educational Culture of the Home to Increase Student Success at School
Societies 2015, 5(3), 664-685; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc5030664
Received: 2 July 2015 / Revised: 14 September 2015 / Accepted: 16 September 2015 / Published: 18 September 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2529 | PDF Full-text (776 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Parent involvement in their children’s learning is widely acknowledged as having a positive effect on student academic success. Of particular relevance is the finding that the influence of parent engagement can mitigate differences in socioeconomic status (SES) and family background. Family background is
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Parent involvement in their children’s learning is widely acknowledged as having a positive effect on student academic success. Of particular relevance is the finding that the influence of parent engagement can mitigate differences in socioeconomic status (SES) and family background. Family background is a multi-dimensional concept that includes the family’s “educational culture” (including for example, parenting style, parental expectations for children’s work at school, direct instructional support for school learning, active parent interest in the school’s curriculum, and the monitoring of children’s engagement with their school work). It is these features of a child’s home environment that directly influence much of the social and intellectual capital students need to be successful at school. This paper summarizes a quasi-experimental field study which explored the relative effects of alternative types of school interventions on parent engagement. All of these interventions aimed to further engage parents in the education of their children as a means of both improving student achievement and closing gaps in achievement for students living primarily in challenging social and economic circumstances. Initiatives by school staffs aimed at helping those families struggling to build productive educational cultures in their homes would appear to be a very promising strategy for closing achievement gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged students. The study provides eight lessons other districts might take heed of as they embark on their own parent engagement interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How School Leadership Influences Student Learning)
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Open AccessReview Teen Childbearing and Economics: A Short History of a 25-Year Research Love Affair
Societies 2015, 5(3), 646-663; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc5030646
Received: 6 July 2015 / Revised: 15 September 2015 / Accepted: 16 September 2015 / Published: 17 September 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3603 | PDF Full-text (745 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Despite its apparent distance from the core topics of economics, economists have been attracted to, and deeply engaged in, research about teen fertility for more than a quarter century. Research has focused on two broad, interrelated issues: the socio-economic consequences of a teen
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Despite its apparent distance from the core topics of economics, economists have been attracted to, and deeply engaged in, research about teen fertility for more than a quarter century. Research has focused on two broad, interrelated issues: the socio-economic consequences of a teen birth and the socio-economic causes of a teen birth. In researching these issues, economists have drawn on and extended basic concepts in economic theory and in applied statistical research. I review those literatures for a non-economist audience and conclude that the research love affair has substantially benefited both parties, although definitive answers to causes and consequences are still elusive. Full article
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Open AccessReview Evaluating Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs: Decades of Evolving Strategies and Practices
Societies 2015, 5(3), 631-645; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc5030631
Received: 22 June 2015 / Revised: 26 August 2015 / Accepted: 28 August 2015 / Published: 8 September 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2330 | PDF Full-text (691 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reviews the changing strategies for both process and outcome evaluations of teen pregnancy prevention programs over the past few decades. Implementation evaluations have emphasized discovery of what program attributes are most effective in reducing teen pregnancy and its antecedents. Outcome evaluations
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This paper reviews the changing strategies for both process and outcome evaluations of teen pregnancy prevention programs over the past few decades. Implementation evaluations have emphasized discovery of what program attributes are most effective in reducing teen pregnancy and its antecedents. Outcome evaluations have moved from collecting data to measure knowledge, attitudes, and program satisfaction to measuring behavior change including postponement of sexual involvement, increased used of contraception, or reduction in teen pregnancy. High quality randomized control trials or quasi-experimental designs are being increasingly emphasized, as are sophisticated analysis techniques using multi-variate analyses, controls for cluster sampling, and other strategies designed to build a more solid knowledge base about how to prevent early pregnancy. Full article
Open AccessEditorial On Imaginative Criminology and Its Significance
Societies 2015, 5(3), 618-630; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc5030618
Received: 20 August 2015 / Accepted: 21 August 2015 / Published: 24 August 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1711 | PDF Full-text (657 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In growing numbers criminologists are discovering the value of imaginative and creative approaches for enquiry. There is now a critical mass of criminological work that engages substantively and theoretically with cultural artefacts such as film, fiction, music, dance, art, photography and cultural institutions.
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In growing numbers criminologists are discovering the value of imaginative and creative approaches for enquiry. There is now a critical mass of criminological work that engages substantively and theoretically with cultural artefacts such as film, fiction, music, dance, art, photography and cultural institutions. In doing so these works highlight criminology’s persistent epistemological and methodological weaknesses. The broad and fragmented “imaginative criminology” movement offers a challenge to an orthodox criminology that is guided by the coercive and constraining bureaucratic categories of criminal justice administration and the criminal law. Imaginative criminology displaces these as the governing categories of criminological thought and practice. Drawing on the work of Pierre Bourdieu, Louis Althusser, and C. Wright Mills this paper considers the movement’s epistemological significance and the challenge posed to criminological orthodoxy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaginative Criminology)
Open AccessArticle Sexual Violence, Race and Media (In)Visibility: Intersectional Complexities in a Transnational Frame
Societies 2015, 5(3), 598-617; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc5030598
Received: 26 May 2015 / Revised: 27 July 2015 / Accepted: 28 July 2015 / Published: 10 August 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2918 | PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intersectional scholarship argues that women of color have distinct experiences of rape compared to white women and highlights their relative invisibility as victims compared to white women victims in news media. While the bulk of intersectional work has examined such issues within one
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Intersectional scholarship argues that women of color have distinct experiences of rape compared to white women and highlights their relative invisibility as victims compared to white women victims in news media. While the bulk of intersectional work has examined such issues within one nation and particularly within the US, in an era of increasingly transnationalized media content, we explore such intersectionalities in a transnational frame. That is, we explore the treatment of the rape of a local Indian woman in New Delhi, India, and the rape of a white woman in Steubenville, USA, in the New York Times and the Times of India. We find that contra assumptions in the intersectional literature, the racialized Indian victim is hyper-visible across both papers while the white US victim is relatively invisible. Situating both newspapers within the global histories of the development of news as a particular genre of storytelling, we argue that their respective locations within larger processes shaped by colonial, imperial and neo-colonial histories have critical implications for the coverage each paper offers. Thus, we argue that issues of race and visibility in media operate very differently depending on the space and scale of analysis. In an increasingly globalized world, then, we must start paying attention to the transnational and its implications for rape, race and (in)visibility in news media. Ultimately, our approach brings together processes of racialization at multiple scales—both below the nation and above the nation—to offer a more complex, multi-scalar understanding of how racialization processes impact rape coverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intersectionality: Disentangling the Complexity of Inequality)
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Open AccessConcept Paper Developing a Conceptual Framework for Investigating Communication Supporting Community Resilience
Societies 2015, 5(3), 583-597; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc5030583
Received: 10 April 2015 / Revised: 1 July 2015 / Accepted: 8 July 2015 / Published: 15 July 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2610 | PDF Full-text (205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In crisis management, cooperation within the response network is seen as crucial. Usually, this network refers to authorities and nongovernmental organizations, such as the Red Cross. However, the authors argue that to improve societal resilience one should take a broader overview of the
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In crisis management, cooperation within the response network is seen as crucial. Usually, this network refers to authorities and nongovernmental organizations, such as the Red Cross. However, the authors argue that to improve societal resilience one should take a broader overview of the actors involved in crisis preparedness and mitigation, and also include the public. With this in mind, the role of communication is scrutinized and a conceptual framework developed as a starting point for further investigation into how communication may be developed to strengthen a community approach to crisis management that includes citizen groups in the broader response network. A model is presented along with four propositions for future research. These include developing inventory methods to assist in stakeholder mapping in the pre-crisis phase, investigating all-hazard approaches to preparedness, scrutinizing collaboration during crisis situations to identify barriers to community resilience, and clarifying the kinds of communication competence needed in crisis situations and reflecting on lessons learned. Full article
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Open AccessReview Leadership Effects on Student Learning Mediated by Teacher Emotions
Societies 2015, 5(3), 566-582; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc5030566
Received: 24 March 2015 / Revised: 7 May 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 29 June 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2232 | PDF Full-text (214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
School leaders’ influence on student achievement is largely indirect. Using systematic review techniques, this paper assesses the impact that leaders have on their students when they focus their improvement efforts on those teacher emotions or dispositions known to have direct effects on teaching
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School leaders’ influence on student achievement is largely indirect. Using systematic review techniques, this paper assesses the impact that leaders have on their students when they focus their improvement efforts on those teacher emotions or dispositions known to have direct effects on teaching and learning in the classroom. Building on an earlier conceptions of how leadership influences student learning and based on a review of research over the last 25 years, this study identifies four distinct teacher emotions which have significant effects on student learning—collective teacher efficacy, teacher commitment, teacher trust in others, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. This review also describes leadership practices likely to foster productive teacher emotions, most such practices reflecting a transformational approach to leadership. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How School Leadership Influences Student Learning)
Societies EISSN 2075-4698 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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