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Galaxies 2018, 6(3), 80;

Simulations of the Formation and X-ray Emission from Hot Bubbles in Planetary Nebulae

Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica (IRyA), UNAM Campus Morelia, 58090 Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Asymmetric Planetary Nebulae VII)
PDF [519 KB, uploaded 19 September 2018]


High-quality X-ray observations of planetary nebulae (PNe) have demonstrated that the X-ray-emitting gas in their hot bubbles have temperatures in the small range TX = (1 − 3) × 106 K. However, according to theoretical expectations, adiabatically-shocked wind-blown bubbles should have temperatures up to two orders of magnitude higher. Numerical simulations show that instabilities at the interface between the hot bubble and the nebular material form clumps and filaments that generate an intermediate-temperature turbulent mixing layer. We describe the X-ray properties resulting from simulations of PNe in our Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. View Full-Text
Keywords: planetary nebulae; mass-loss; stellar evolution; X-rays planetary nebulae; mass-loss; stellar evolution; X-rays

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Toalá, J.A.; Arthur, S.J. Simulations of the Formation and X-ray Emission from Hot Bubbles in Planetary Nebulae. Galaxies 2018, 6, 80.

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