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Open AccessArticle

Risk Factors for Possible Dementia Using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination in Shanghai

1
Memory, Ageing and Cognition Centre, National University Health System, Singapore 117600, Singapore
2
Department of Geriatric Psychiatry, Shanghai Mental Health Centre, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200030, China
3
Centre for Aging Studies, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Jawa Barat 16424, Indonesia
4
Psychology Division, School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Brockington Building, Ashby Road, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andreas Kjaer
Diagnostics 2015, 5(4), 487-496; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics5040487
Received: 5 October 2015 / Revised: 16 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 23 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Dementia Screening and Treatment)
Using a combination of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), we investigated the prevalence of possible dementia (DEM) in community-dwelling elderly in Shanghai. Subsequently, we investigated significant risk factors for DEM and generated a DEM self-checklist for early DEM detection and case management. We found that among a total of 521 participants using a HVLT cut-off score of <19 and a MMSE cut-off score of <24, a total of 69 DEM cases were identified. Risk factors, such as advanced age (≥68 years), low education (no or primary level), self-reported history of hypertension, and self-reported subjective memory complaints (SMC) were significantly predictive of DEM. The presence of ≥3 out of four of the above mentioned risk factors can effectively discriminate DEM cases from non-DEM subjects. View Full-Text
Keywords: prevalence; dementia; risk factors prevalence; dementia; risk factors
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Xu, X.; Xiao, S.; Rahardjo, T.B.; Hogervorst, E. Risk Factors for Possible Dementia Using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination in Shanghai. Diagnostics 2015, 5, 487-496.

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