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Antibodies, Volume 9, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 6 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Hybridoma screening is a tedious and challenging task. Several pitfalls can lead to false [...] Read more.
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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue: Nanobody
Antibodies 2020, 9(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9010006 - 06 Mar 2020
Viewed by 796
Abstract
Since their first description in 1993 [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobody)
Open AccessArticle
Human IgA Monoclonal Antibodies That Neutralize Poliovirus, Produced by Hybridomas and Recombinant Expression
Antibodies 2020, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9010005 - 28 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1000
Abstract
Poliovirus (PV)-specific intestinal IgAs are important for cessation of PV shedding in the gastrointestinal tract following an acute infection with wild type or vaccine-derived PV strains. We sought to produce IgA monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with PV neutralizing activity. We first performed de novo [...] Read more.
Poliovirus (PV)-specific intestinal IgAs are important for cessation of PV shedding in the gastrointestinal tract following an acute infection with wild type or vaccine-derived PV strains. We sought to produce IgA monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with PV neutralizing activity. We first performed de novo IgA discovery from primary human B cells using a hybridoma method that allows assessment of mAb binding and expression on the hybridoma surface: On-Cell mAb Screening (OCMS™). Six IgA1 mAbs were cloned by this method; three potently neutralized type 3 Sabin and wt PV strains. The hybridoma mAbs were heterogeneous, expressed in monomeric, dimeric, and aberrant forms. We also used recombinant methods to convert two high-potency anti-PV IgG mAbs into dimeric IgA1 and IgA2 mAbs. Isotype switching did not substantially change their neutralization activities. To purify the recombinant mAbs, Protein L binding was used, and one of the mAbs required a single amino acid substitution in its κ LC in order to enable protein L binding. Lastly, we used OCMS to assess IgA expression on the surface of hybridomas and transiently transfected, adherent cells. These studies have generated potent anti-PV IgA mAbs, for use in animal models, as well as additional tools for the discovery and production of human IgA mAbs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Therapeutic Antibodies against Toxins and Pathogens)
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Open AccessArticle
Equal Neutralization Potency of Antibodies Raised against Abrin Subunits
Antibodies 2020, 9(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9010004 - 06 Feb 2020
Viewed by 865
Abstract
Abrin and ricin are potent AB toxins, which are considered biological threats. To date, there are no approved treatments against abrin or ricin intoxications. Previously, we showed that the administration of polyclonal anti-abrin antibodies to mice that were intranasally exposed to abrin, even [...] Read more.
Abrin and ricin are potent AB toxins, which are considered biological threats. To date, there are no approved treatments against abrin or ricin intoxications. Previously, we showed that the administration of polyclonal anti-abrin antibodies to mice that were intranasally exposed to abrin, even very late post-exposure, conferred an exceedingly high-level of protection, while following ricin intoxication, similar treatment with anti-ricin antibodies resulted in negligible survival rates. To probe this unexpected difference in protection ability, we first examined whether the efficient anti-abrin-induced protection was due to neutralization of the A-subunit responsible for the catalytic effect, or of the B-subunit, which enables binding/internalization, by evaluating the protection conferred by antibodies directed against one of the two subunits. To this end, we generated and immunized rabbits with chimeric toxins containing a single abrin subunit, AabrinBricin in which abrin A-subunit was linked to ricin B-subunit, and AricinBabrin in which ricin A-subunit is linked to abrin B-subunit. Here, we show that antibodies raised against either AabrinBricin or AricinBabrin conferred exceptionally high protection levels to mice following intranasal exposure to a a lethal dose of abrin, suggesting that the high level of protection conferred by anti-abrin antibodies is not related to the neutralization of a particular subunit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Therapeutic Antibodies against Toxins and Pathogens)
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Antibodies in 2019
Antibodies 2020, 9(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9010003 - 30 Jan 2020
Viewed by 878
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and
expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months[...] Full article
Open AccessReview
Antibody Conjugates-Recent Advances and Future Innovations
Antibodies 2020, 9(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9010002 - 08 Jan 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2230
Abstract
Monoclonal antibodies have evolved from research tools to powerful therapeutics in the past 30 years. Clinical success rates of antibodies have exceeded expectations, resulting in heavy investment in biologics discovery and development in addition to traditional small molecules across the industry. However, protein [...] Read more.
Monoclonal antibodies have evolved from research tools to powerful therapeutics in the past 30 years. Clinical success rates of antibodies have exceeded expectations, resulting in heavy investment in biologics discovery and development in addition to traditional small molecules across the industry. However, protein therapeutics cannot drug targets intracellularly and are limited to soluble and cell-surface antigens. Tremendous strides have been made in antibody discovery, protein engineering, formulation, and delivery devices. These advances continue to push the boundaries of biologics to enable antibody conjugates to take advantage of the target specificity and long half-life from an antibody, while delivering highly potent small molecule drugs. While the “magic bullet” concept produced the first wave of antibody conjugates, these entities were met with limited clinical success. This review summarizes the advances and challenges in the field to date with emphasis on antibody conjugation, linker-payload chemistry, novel payload classes, absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME), and product developability. We discuss lessons learned in the development of oncology antibody conjugates and look towards future innovations enabling other therapeutic indications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monoclonal Antibody-Directed Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle
Antibody Screening by Microarray Technology—Direct Identification of Selective High-Affinity Clones
Antibodies 2020, 9(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9010001 - 02 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1739
Abstract
The primary screening of hybridoma cells is a time-critical and laborious step during the development of monoclonal antibodies. Often, critical errors occur in this phase, which supports the notion that the generation of monoclonal antibodies with hybridoma technology is difficult to control and [...] Read more.
The primary screening of hybridoma cells is a time-critical and laborious step during the development of monoclonal antibodies. Often, critical errors occur in this phase, which supports the notion that the generation of monoclonal antibodies with hybridoma technology is difficult to control and hence, a risky venture. We think that it is crucial to improve the screening process to eliminate most of the critical deficits of the conventional approach. With this new microarray-based procedure, several advances could be achieved: Selectivity for excellent binders, high-throughput, reproducible signals, avoidance of misleading avidity (multivalency) effects, and performance of simultaneous competition experiments. The latter can also be used to select clones of desired cross-reactivity properties. In this paper, a model system with two excellent clones against carbamazepine, two weak clones, and blank supernatant containing fetal bovine serum was designed to examine the effectiveness of the new system. The excellent clones could be detected largely independent of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration, which is usually unknown during the clone screening since the determination and subsequent adjustment of the antibody concentration are not feasible in most cases. Furthermore, in this approach, the enrichment, isolation, and purification of IgG for characterization is not necessary. Raw cell culture supernatant can be used directly, even when fetal calf serum (FCS) or other complex media is used. In addition, an improved method for the oriented antibody-immobilization on epoxy-silanized slides is presented. Based on the results of this model system with simulated hybridoma supernatants, we conclude that this approach should be preferable to most other protocols leading to many false positives, causing expensive and lengthy elimination steps to weed out the poor clones. Full article
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