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Review

The Role of Micronutrients in the Infection and Subsequent Response to Hepatitis C Virus

1
Blacktown Clinical School, Western Sydney University, Blacktown, NSW 2148, Australia
2
Storr Liver Centre, The Westmead Institute for Medical Research, University of Sydney, Westmead 2145, Australia
3
Department of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW 2052, Australia
4
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Centre for Molecular Therapeutics, James Cook University, Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, Townsville, QLD 4814, Australia
5
Department of Medicine, Blacktown Hospital, Blacktown, NSW 2148, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally.
Cells 2019, 8(6), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8060603
Received: 20 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatitis C Virus and Host Interactions)
Micronutrient deficiencies develop for a variety of reasons, whether geographic, socioeconomic, nutritional, or as a result of disease pathologies such as chronic viral infection. As micronutrients are essential for a strong immune response, deficiencies can significantly dampen both the innate and the adaptive arms of antiviral immunity. The innate immune response in particular is crucial to protect against hepatitis C virus (HCV), a hepatotropic virus that maintains chronic infection in up to 80% of individuals if left untreated. While many micronutrients are required for HCV replication, an overlapping group of micronutrients are also necessary to enact a potent immune response. As the liver is responsible for the storage and metabolism of many micronutrients, HCV persistence can influence the micronutrients’ steady state to benefit viral persistence both directly and by weakening the antiviral response. This review will focus on common micronutrients such as zinc, iron, copper, selenium, vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin D and vitamin E. We will explore their role in the pathogenesis of HCV infection and in the response to antiviral therapy. While chronic hepatitis C virus infection drives deficiencies in micronutrients such as zinc, selenium, vitamin A and B12, it also stimulates copper and iron excess; these micronutrients influence antioxidant, inflammatory and immune responses to HCV. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatitis C virus; micronutrients; micronutrient deficiency; liver; innate immunity hepatitis C virus; micronutrients; micronutrient deficiency; liver; innate immunity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gupta, S.; Read, S.A.; Shackel, N.A.; Hebbard, L.; George, J.; Ahlenstiel, G. The Role of Micronutrients in the Infection and Subsequent Response to Hepatitis C Virus. Cells 2019, 8, 603. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8060603

AMA Style

Gupta S, Read SA, Shackel NA, Hebbard L, George J, Ahlenstiel G. The Role of Micronutrients in the Infection and Subsequent Response to Hepatitis C Virus. Cells. 2019; 8(6):603. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8060603

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gupta, Sunil, Scott A. Read, Nicholas A. Shackel, Lionel Hebbard, Jacob George, and Golo Ahlenstiel. 2019. "The Role of Micronutrients in the Infection and Subsequent Response to Hepatitis C Virus" Cells 8, no. 6: 603. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8060603

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