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Rho GTPases—Emerging Regulators of Glucose Homeostasis and Metabolic Health

1
Section of Molecular Physiology, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen Oe, Denmark
2
Cell Biology Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(5), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050434
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 2 May 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rho GTPases in Health and Disease)
PDF [2690 KB, uploaded 9 May 2019]
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Abstract

Rho guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) are key regulators in a number of cellular functions, including actin cytoskeleton remodeling and vesicle traffic. Traditionally, Rho GTPases are studied because of their function in cell migration and cancer, while their roles in metabolism are less documented. However, emerging evidence implicates Rho GTPases as regulators of processes of crucial importance for maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Thus, the time is now ripe for reviewing Rho GTPases in the context of metabolic health. Rho GTPase-mediated key processes include the release of insulin from pancreatic β cells, glucose uptake into skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, and muscle mass regulation. Through the current review, we cast light on the important roles of Rho GTPases in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and the pancreas and discuss the proposed mechanisms by which Rho GTPases act to regulate glucose metabolism in health and disease. We also describe challenges and goals for future research.
Keywords: Rho GTPases; metabolism; glucose homeostasis; GLUT4 translocation; skeletal muscle; pancreas; insulin; diabetes; ageing Rho GTPases; metabolism; glucose homeostasis; GLUT4 translocation; skeletal muscle; pancreas; insulin; diabetes; ageing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Møller, L.L.V.; Klip, A.; Sylow, L. Rho GTPases—Emerging Regulators of Glucose Homeostasis and Metabolic Health. Cells 2019, 8, 434.

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