Rho guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) are key regulators in a number of cellular functions, including actin cytoskeleton remodeling and vesicle traffic. Traditionally, Rho GTPases are studied because of their function in cell migration and cancer, while their roles in metabolism are less documented. However, emerging evidence implicates Rho GTPases as regulators of processes of crucial importance for maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Thus, the time is now ripe for reviewing Rho GTPases in the context of metabolic health. Rho GTPase-mediated key processes include the release of insulin from pancreatic β cells, glucose uptake into skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, and muscle mass regulation. Through the current review, we cast light on the important roles of Rho GTPases in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and the pancreas and discuss the proposed mechanisms by which Rho GTPases act to regulate glucose metabolism in health and disease. We also describe challenges and goals for future research.
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