Next Article in Journal
Telomere Gene Therapy: Polarizing Therapeutic Goals for Treatment of Various Diseases
Previous Article in Journal
Telomere Function and the G-Quadruplex Formation are Regulated by hnRNP U
Previous Article in Special Issue
Exogenous Cytokine-Free Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells into Classical Brown Adipocytes
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

A Cleared View on Retinal Organoids

Institute of Neuroanatomy & Developmental Biology (INDB), Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Österbergstrasse 3, 72074 Tübingen, Germany
Institute of Clinical Anatomy and Cell Analysis, University of Tübingen, 72074 Tübingen, Germany
Centre for Ophthalmology, Institute for Ophthalmic Research, University of Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
Center for Neurosensory Systems (ZFN), Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Cells 2019, 8(5), 391;
Received: 3 April 2019 / Revised: 23 April 2019 / Accepted: 26 April 2019 / Published: 28 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cells in Personalized Medicine)
PDF [3702 KB, uploaded 28 April 2019]


Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived organoids mimicking tissues and organs in vitro have advanced medical research, as they opened up new possibilities for in-depth basic research on human organ development as well as providing a human in vitro model for personalized therapeutic approaches. hiPSC-derived retinal organoids have proven to be of great value for modeling the human retina featuring a very similar cellular composition, layering, and functionality. The technically challenging imaging of three-dimensional structures such as retinal organoids has, however, raised the need for robust whole-organoid imaging techniques. To improve imaging of retinal organoids we optimized a passive clearing technique (PACT), which enables high-resolution visualization of fragile intra-tissue structures. Using cleared retinal organoids, we could greatly enhance the antibody labeling efficiency and depth of imaging at high resolution, thereby improving the three-dimensional microscopy output. In that course, we were able to identify the spatial morphological shape and organization of, e.g., photoreceptor cells and bipolar cell layers. Moreover, we used the synaptic protein CtBP2/Ribeye to visualize the interconnection points of photoreceptor and bipolar cells forming the retinal-specific ribbon synapses. View Full-Text
Keywords: retinal organoid; human iPSC; PACT; CLARITY; organoid retinal organoid; human iPSC; PACT; CLARITY; organoid

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Cora, V.; Haderspeck, J.; Antkowiak, L.; Mattheus, U.; Neckel, P.H.; Mack, A.F.; Bolz, S.; Ueffing, M.; Pashkovskaia, N.; Achberger, K.; Liebau, S. A Cleared View on Retinal Organoids. Cells 2019, 8, 391.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Cells EISSN 2073-4409 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top