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Open AccessArticle

Ghanaian Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Bean Shells Coproducts: Effect of Particle Size on Chemical Composition, Bioactive Compound Content and Antioxidant Activity

1
IPOA Research Group, Agro-Food Technology Department, Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, Orihuela, 03312 Alicante, Spain
2
Faculty of Bioscience and Technology for Food, Agriculture and Environment, University of Teramo, Via R. Balzarini 1, 64100 Teramo, Italy
3
Grupo de Investigación Biotecnología, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de San Buenaventura Cali, Carrera 122 # 6-65, 76001 Cali, Colombia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francisca Hernández Garcia
Agronomy 2021, 11(2), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11020401
Received: 2 February 2021 / Revised: 18 February 2021 / Accepted: 18 February 2021 / Published: 23 February 2021
The worldwide cocoa bean shell (CBS) generation is estimated at around 900,000 tons. In their composition, this coproduct showed several bioactive compounds like methylxanthines or polyphenolic compounds. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of different particle sizes on the chemical composition, physico-chemical, bioactive compounds content, and antioxidant properties of flours obtained from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) bean shells. The flours obtained from CBS with different particle sizes had high content of dietary fiber (61.18–65.58 g/100 g). The polyphenolic profile identified seven compounds being epicatechin and catechin (values ranged 4.56–6.33 and 2.11–4.56 mg/g, respectively) as the most abundant compounds. Additionally, the methylxanthines theobromine and caffeine were quantified with values ranging from 7.12 to 12.77 and 4.02 to 6.13 mg/g, respectively. For the fatty acid profile, the principal compounds identified were oleic, stearic and palmitic acids. CBS had antioxidant capacity with all methods assayed. For DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays values ranged between 2.35–5.53, 3.39–11.55, and 3.84–7.62 mg Trolox equivalents/g sample, respectively. This study suggests that cocoa bean shells may constitute a valuable coproduct for the food industry due to its high content in valuable bioactive compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: cocoa shells; flours; coproducts; polyphenolic profile; fatty acid content; antioxidant; techno-functional cocoa shells; flours; coproducts; polyphenolic profile; fatty acid content; antioxidant; techno-functional
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MDPI and ACS Style

Botella-Martínez, C.; Lucas-Gonzalez, R.; Ballester-Costa, C.; Pérez-Álvarez, J.Á.; Fernández-López, J.; Delgado-Ospina, J.; Chaves-López, C.; Viuda-Martos, M. Ghanaian Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Bean Shells Coproducts: Effect of Particle Size on Chemical Composition, Bioactive Compound Content and Antioxidant Activity. Agronomy 2021, 11, 401. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11020401

AMA Style

Botella-Martínez C, Lucas-Gonzalez R, Ballester-Costa C, Pérez-Álvarez JÁ, Fernández-López J, Delgado-Ospina J, Chaves-López C, Viuda-Martos M. Ghanaian Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Bean Shells Coproducts: Effect of Particle Size on Chemical Composition, Bioactive Compound Content and Antioxidant Activity. Agronomy. 2021; 11(2):401. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11020401

Chicago/Turabian Style

Botella-Martínez, Carmen; Lucas-Gonzalez, Raquel; Ballester-Costa, Carmen; Pérez-Álvarez, José Á.; Fernández-López, Juana; Delgado-Ospina, Johannes; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Viuda-Martos, Manuel. 2021. "Ghanaian Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Bean Shells Coproducts: Effect of Particle Size on Chemical Composition, Bioactive Compound Content and Antioxidant Activity" Agronomy 11, no. 2: 401. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11020401

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