Nitrogen-containing heterocycles are important scaffolds for a large number of compounds with biological, pharmaceutical, industrial and optoelectronic applications. A wide range of different methodologies for the preparation of N
-heterocycles are based on metal-catalyzed cyclization of suitable substrates. Due to the growing interest in Green Chemistry criteria over the past two decades, the use of supported metal catalysts in the preparation of N
-heterocycles has become a central topic in Organic Chemistry. Here we will give a critical overview of all the solid supported metal catalysts applied in the synthesis of N
-heterocycles, following a systematic approach as a function of the type of support: (i) metal catalysts supported on inorganic matrices; (ii) metal catalysts supported on organic matrices; (iii) metal catalysts supported on hybrid inorganic-organic matrices. In particular, we will try to emphasize the effective heterogeneity and recyclability of the described metal catalysts, specifying which studies were carried out in order to evaluate these aspects.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited