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Computers, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2016) – 8 articles

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1573 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Nano-Process Deposition Parameters Based on Gravitational Search Algorithm
by Norlina Mohd Sabri, Nor Diyana Md Sin, Mazidah Puteh and Mohamad Rusop Mahmood
Computers 2016, 5(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers5020012 - 8 Jun 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6835
Abstract
This research is focusing on the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering process, a physical vapor deposition technique which is widely used in thin film production. This process requires the optimized combination of deposition parameters in order to obtain the desirable thin film. The [...] Read more.
This research is focusing on the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering process, a physical vapor deposition technique which is widely used in thin film production. This process requires the optimized combination of deposition parameters in order to obtain the desirable thin film. The conventional method in the optimization of the deposition parameters had been reported to be costly and time consuming due to its trial and error nature. Thus, gravitational search algorithm (GSA) technique had been proposed to solve this nano-process parameters optimization problem. In this research, the optimized parameter combination was expected to produce the desirable electrical and optical properties of the thin film. The performance of GSA in this research was compared with that of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Genetic Algorithm (GA), Artificial Immune System (AIS) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). Based on the overall results, the GSA optimized parameter combination had generated the best electrical and an acceptable optical properties of thin film compared to the others. This computational experiment is expected to overcome the problem of having to conduct repetitive laboratory experiments in obtaining the most optimized parameter combination. Based on this initial experiment, the adaptation of GSA into this problem could offer a more efficient and productive way of depositing quality thin film in the fabrication process. Full article
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6470 KiB  
Article
Continuity-Aware Scheduling Algorithm for Scalable Video Streaming
by Atinat Palawan, John C. Woods and Mohammed Ghanbari
Computers 2016, 5(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers5020011 - 30 May 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 6937
Abstract
The consumer demand for retrieving and delivering visual content through consumer electronic devices has increased rapidly in recent years. The quality of video in packet networks is susceptible to certain traffic characteristics: average bandwidth availability, loss, delay and delay variation (jitter). This paper [...] Read more.
The consumer demand for retrieving and delivering visual content through consumer electronic devices has increased rapidly in recent years. The quality of video in packet networks is susceptible to certain traffic characteristics: average bandwidth availability, loss, delay and delay variation (jitter). This paper presents a scheduling algorithm that modifies the stream of scalable video to combat jitter. The algorithm provides unequal look-ahead by safeguarding the base layer (without the need for overhead) of the scalable video. The results of the experiments show that our scheduling algorithm reduces the number of frames with a violated deadline and significantly improves the continuity of the video stream without compromising the average Y Peek Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR). Full article
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2182 KiB  
Article
Face Liveness Detection Using Dynamic Local Ternary Pattern (DLTP)
by Sajida Parveen, Sharifah Mumtazah Syed Ahmad, Nidaa Hasan Abbas, Wan Azizun Wan Adnan, Marsyita Hanafi and Nadeem Naeem
Computers 2016, 5(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers5020010 - 24 May 2016
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 12058
Abstract
Face spoofing is considered to be one of the prominent threats to face recognition systems. However, in order to improve the security measures of such biometric systems against deliberate spoof attacks, liveness detection has received significant recent attention from researchers. For this purpose, [...] Read more.
Face spoofing is considered to be one of the prominent threats to face recognition systems. However, in order to improve the security measures of such biometric systems against deliberate spoof attacks, liveness detection has received significant recent attention from researchers. For this purpose, analysis of facial skin texture properties becomes more popular because of its limited resource requirement and lower processing cost. The traditional method of skin analysis for liveness detection was to use Local Binary Pattern (LBP) and its variants. LBP descriptors are effective, but they may exhibit certain limitations in near uniform patterns. Thus, in this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of Local Ternary Pattern (LTP) as an alternative to LBP. In addition, we adopted Dynamic Local Ternary Pattern (DLTP), which eliminates the manual threshold setting in LTP by using Weber’s law. The proposed method was tested rigorously on four facial spoof databases: three are public domain databases and the other is the Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) face spoof database, which was compiled through this study. The results obtained from the proposed DLTP texture descriptor attained optimum accuracy and clearly outperformed the reported LBP and LTP texture descriptors. Full article
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450 KiB  
Article
Video over DSL with LDGM Codes for Interactive Applications
by Laith Al-Jobouri, Filippo Casu, Martin Fleury and Julián Cabrera
Computers 2016, 5(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers5020009 - 23 May 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 7759
Abstract
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) network access is subject to error bursts, which, for interactive video, can introduce unacceptable latencies if video packets need to be re-sent. If the video packets are protected against errors with Forward Error Correction (FEC), calculation of the application-layer [...] Read more.
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) network access is subject to error bursts, which, for interactive video, can introduce unacceptable latencies if video packets need to be re-sent. If the video packets are protected against errors with Forward Error Correction (FEC), calculation of the application-layer channel codes themselves may also introduce additional latency. This paper proposes Low-Density Generator Matrix (LDGM) codes rather than other popular codes because they are more suitable for interactive video streaming, not only for their computational simplicity but also for their licensing advantage. The paper demonstrates that a reduction of up to 4 dB in video distortion is achievable with LDGM Application Layer (AL) FEC. In addition, an extension to the LDGM scheme is demonstrated, which works by rearranging the columns of the parity check matrix so as to make it even more resilient to burst errors. Telemedicine and video conferencing are typical target applications. Full article
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1267 KiB  
Article
An Artificial Bee Colony-Based COPE Framework for Wireless Sensor Network
by Amit Singh and Aitha Nagaraju
Computers 2016, 5(2), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers5020008 - 6 May 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 7505
Abstract
In wireless communication, network coding is one of the intelligent approaches to process the packets before transmitting for efficient information exchange. The goal of this work is to enhance throughput by using the intelligent technique, which may give comparatively better optimization. This paper [...] Read more.
In wireless communication, network coding is one of the intelligent approaches to process the packets before transmitting for efficient information exchange. The goal of this work is to enhance throughput by using the intelligent technique, which may give comparatively better optimization. This paper introduces a biologically-inspired coding approach called Artificial Bee Colony Network Coding (ABC-NC), a modification in the COPE framework. The existing COPE and its variant are probabilistic approaches, which may not give good results in all of the real-time scenarios. Therefore, it needs some intelligent technique to find better packet combinations at intermediate nodes before forwarding to optimize the energy and maximize the throughput in wireless networks. This paper proposes ABC-NC over the existing COPE framework for the wireless environment. Full article
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5070 KiB  
Review
Cognitive Radio for Smart Grid with Security Considerations
by Khaled Shuaib, Ezedin Barka, Nedaa Al Hussien, Mohammed Abdel-Hafez and Mahmoud Alahmad
Computers 2016, 5(2), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers5020007 - 28 Apr 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 13554
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate how Cognitive Radio as a means of communication can be utilized to serve a smart grid deployment end to end, from a home area network to power generation. We show how Cognitive Radio can be mapped to integrate [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigate how Cognitive Radio as a means of communication can be utilized to serve a smart grid deployment end to end, from a home area network to power generation. We show how Cognitive Radio can be mapped to integrate the possible different communication networks within a smart grid large scale deployment. In addition, various applications in smart grid are defined and discussed showing how Cognitive Radio can be used to fulfill their communication requirements. Moreover, information security issues pertained to the use of Cognitive Radio in a smart grid environment at different levels and layers are discussed and mitigation techniques are suggested. Finally, the well-known Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) is integrated with the Cognitive Radio part of a smart grid communication network to protect against unauthorized access to customer’s data and to the network at large. Full article
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1642 KiB  
Article
Induction Motor Parameter Identification Using a Gravitational Search Algorithm
by Omar Avalos, Erik Cuevas and Jorge Gálvez
Computers 2016, 5(2), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers5020006 - 27 Apr 2016
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 8969
Abstract
The efficient use of electrical energy is a topic that has attracted attention for its environmental consequences. On the other hand, induction motors represent the main component in most industries. They consume the highest energy percentages in industrial facilities. This energy consumption depends [...] Read more.
The efficient use of electrical energy is a topic that has attracted attention for its environmental consequences. On the other hand, induction motors represent the main component in most industries. They consume the highest energy percentages in industrial facilities. This energy consumption depends on the operation conditions of the induction motor imposed by its internal parameters. Since the internal parameters of an induction motor are not directly measurable, an identification process must be conducted to obtain them. In the identification process, the parameter estimation is transformed into a multidimensional optimization problem where the internal parameters of the induction motor are considered as decision variables. Under this approach, the complexity of the optimization problem tends to produce multimodal error surfaces for which their cost functions are significantly difficult to minimize. Several algorithms based on evolutionary computation principles have been successfully applied to identify the optimal parameters of induction motors. However, most of them maintain an important limitation: They frequently obtain sub-optimal solutions as a result of an improper equilibrium between exploitation and exploration in their search strategies. This paper presents an algorithm for the optimal parameter identification of induction motors. To determine the parameters, the proposed method uses a recent evolutionary method called the gravitational search algorithm (GSA). Different from most of the existent evolutionary algorithms, the GSA presents a better performance in multimodal problems, avoiding critical flaws such as the premature convergence to sub-optimal solutions. Numerical simulations have been conducted on several models to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. Full article
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606 KiB  
Article
An Efficient Decoder for the Recognition of Event-Related Potentials in High-Density MEG Recordings
by Christoph Reichert, Stefan Dürschmid, Rudolf Kruse and Hermann Hinrichs
Computers 2016, 5(2), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers5020005 - 12 Apr 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 9509
Abstract
Brain–computer interfacing (BCI) is a promising technique for regaining communication and control in severely paralyzed people. Many BCI implementations are based on the recognition of task-specific event-related potentials (ERP) such as P300 responses. However, because of the high signal-to-noise ratio in noninvasive brain [...] Read more.
Brain–computer interfacing (BCI) is a promising technique for regaining communication and control in severely paralyzed people. Many BCI implementations are based on the recognition of task-specific event-related potentials (ERP) such as P300 responses. However, because of the high signal-to-noise ratio in noninvasive brain recordings, reliable detection of single trial ERPs is challenging. Furthermore, the relevant signal is often heterogeneously distributed over several channels. In this paper, we introduce a new approach for recognizing a sequence of attended events from multi-channel brain recordings. The framework utilizes spatial filtering to reduce both noise and signal space considerably. We introduce different models that can be used to construct the spatial filter and evaluate the approach using magnetoencephalography (MEG) data involving P300 responses, recorded during a BCI experiment. Compared to the accuracy achieved in the BCI experiment performed without spatial filtering, the recognition rate increased significantly to up to 95.3% on average (SD: 5.3%). In combination with the data-driven spatial filter construction we introduce here, our framework represents a powerful method to reliably recognize a sequence of brain potentials from high-density electrophysiological data, which could greatly improve the control of BCIs. Full article
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