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Article

Consumption of Micronutrient Powder, Syrup or Fortified Food Significantly Improves Zinc and Iron Status in Young Mexican Children: A Cluster Randomized Trial

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Centro de Investigación en Nutrición y Salud, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública (INSP), Universidad N-655, Colonia Santa María Ahuacatitlán, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, Cuernavaca 62100, Mexico
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Centro de Investigación en Salud Poblacional, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública (INSP), Universidad N-655, Colonia Santa María Ahuacatitlán, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, Cuernavaca 62100, Mexico
3
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 00153 Rome, Italy
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Centro de Investigación en Evaluación y Encuestas, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública (INSP), Universidad N-655, Colonia Santa María Ahuacatitlán, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, Cuernavaca 62100, Mexico
5
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Vaccine and Infection Disease Division, 1100 Fairview Ave. N, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of FAO.
Academic Editors: Robert E. Black, Christine McDonald and Roberto Iacone
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2231; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112231
Received: 1 March 2022 / Revised: 28 April 2022 / Accepted: 6 May 2022 / Published: 27 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zinc Supplementation and Fortification: The Unfinished Agenda)
The objective of this study was to compare the effect of three micronutrient products on biomarkers of iron and zinc status of Mexican children 6–12 months of age. As part of research to improve the impact of a national program, 54 communities were randomly assigned to receive: (1) fortified food (FF), provided by the program at the time, or (2) micronutrient powders (MNP) or (3) syrup. Each product contained 10 mg each of zinc and iron, plus other micronutrients. Children consumed the product 6 days/week for four months. Primary outcomes were changes in serum zinc, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, hemoglobin concentrations, and their deficiencies. Zinc concentration increased significantly from baseline to follow-up in all groups, with the largest change in the syrup group (geometric mean difference: +4.4 µmol/L; 95%CI: 3.2, 5.5), followed by MNP (+2.9 µmol/L; 95%CI: 2.1, 3.6) and FF (+0.9 µmol/L; 95%CI: 0.3, 1.6). There was a significant increase in hemoglobin concentration (+5.5 g/L; 2.5, 8.4) and a significant reduction in anemia prevalence (44.2% to 26.8%, p < 0.01) only in the MNP group. Compliance differed significantly among groups (MNP vs. FF, p = 0.04; MNP vs. syrup, p = 0.04), but may not fully explain the greater improvement in zinc and iron status in the syrup and MNP groups. The food matrix may influence nutrient utilization from supplements. View Full-Text
Keywords: zinc; iron; fortified food; syrup; micronutrient powders zinc; iron; fortified food; syrup; micronutrient powders
MDPI and ACS Style

García-Guerra, A.; Rivera, J.A.; Neufeld, L.M.; Quezada-Sánchez, A.D.; Dominguez Islas, C.; Fernández-Gaxiola, A.C.; Bonvecchio Arenas, A. Consumption of Micronutrient Powder, Syrup or Fortified Food Significantly Improves Zinc and Iron Status in Young Mexican Children: A Cluster Randomized Trial. Nutrients 2022, 14, 2231. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112231

AMA Style

García-Guerra A, Rivera JA, Neufeld LM, Quezada-Sánchez AD, Dominguez Islas C, Fernández-Gaxiola AC, Bonvecchio Arenas A. Consumption of Micronutrient Powder, Syrup or Fortified Food Significantly Improves Zinc and Iron Status in Young Mexican Children: A Cluster Randomized Trial. Nutrients. 2022; 14(11):2231. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112231

Chicago/Turabian Style

García-Guerra, Armando, Juan A. Rivera, Lynnette M. Neufeld, Amado D. Quezada-Sánchez, Clara Dominguez Islas, Ana C. Fernández-Gaxiola, and Anabelle Bonvecchio Arenas. 2022. "Consumption of Micronutrient Powder, Syrup or Fortified Food Significantly Improves Zinc and Iron Status in Young Mexican Children: A Cluster Randomized Trial" Nutrients 14, no. 11: 2231. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112231

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