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What Is the Impact of Energy Expenditure on Energy Intake?
Review

Effects of Intermittent Fasting on Cardiometabolic Health: An Energy Metabolism Perspective

1
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA
2
PROmoting FITness and Health through Physical Activity Research Group, Department of Physical Education and Sports, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Paolo Piaggi and Benjamin D. Horne
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030489
Received: 8 December 2021 / Revised: 17 January 2022 / Accepted: 19 January 2022 / Published: 23 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Balance and Body Weight)
This review summarizes the effects of different types of intermittent fasting (IF) on human cardiometabolic health, with a focus on energy metabolism. First, we discuss the coordinated metabolic adaptations (energy expenditure, hormonal changes and macronutrient oxidation) occurring during a 72 h fast. We then discuss studies investigating the effects of IF on cardiometabolic health, energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. Finally, we discuss how IF may be optimized by combining it with exercise. In general, IF regimens improve body composition, ectopic fat, and classic cardiometabolic risk factors, as compared to unrestricted eating, especially in metabolically unhealthy participants. However, it is still unclear whether IF provides additional cardiometabolic benefits as compared to continuous daily caloric restriction (CR). Most studies found no additional benefits, yet some preliminary data suggest that IF regimens may provide cardiometabolic benefits in the absence of weight loss. Finally, although IF and continuous daily CR appear to induce similar changes in energy expenditure, IF regimens may differentially affect substrate oxidation, increasing protein and fat oxidation. Future tightly controlled studies are needed to unravel the underlying mechanisms of IF and its role in cardiometabolic health and energy metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiovascular health; metabolic rate; energy expenditure; fat oxidation; alternate-day fasting; twice-weekly fasting; 5:2 diet; modified periodic fasting; fasting-mimicking diet; time-restricted eating; Ramadan; exercise cardiovascular health; metabolic rate; energy expenditure; fat oxidation; alternate-day fasting; twice-weekly fasting; 5:2 diet; modified periodic fasting; fasting-mimicking diet; time-restricted eating; Ramadan; exercise
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dote-Montero, M.; Sanchez-Delgado, G.; Ravussin, E. Effects of Intermittent Fasting on Cardiometabolic Health: An Energy Metabolism Perspective. Nutrients 2022, 14, 489. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030489

AMA Style

Dote-Montero M, Sanchez-Delgado G, Ravussin E. Effects of Intermittent Fasting on Cardiometabolic Health: An Energy Metabolism Perspective. Nutrients. 2022; 14(3):489. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030489

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dote-Montero, Manuel, Guillermo Sanchez-Delgado, and Eric Ravussin. 2022. "Effects of Intermittent Fasting on Cardiometabolic Health: An Energy Metabolism Perspective" Nutrients 14, no. 3: 489. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030489

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